Wednesday, December 29, 2010

History Trivia

January 7: The Egyptians celebrated this day as the birthday of Sekhmet, the goddess of the healing arts. 49 BC, Julius Caesar was ordered to disband his army. He refused and crossed the Rubicon three days later. 1325 Alfonso IV became King of Portugal. 1451 the University of Glasgow Founded at the request of King James II of Scotland. Pope Nicholas V issued a bull of foundation for a "studium generale." At first underfunded and lacking a place to hold lectures, the University nonetheless grew into a distinguished center of learning, its progress only briefly interrupted by the troubles of the Reformation. 1558 France took Calais, the last continental possession of England. 1598 Boris Godunov became Tsar of Russia. 1610 Galileo Galilei observed three of the four largest moons of Jupiter for the first time. He named them, and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons.

History Trivia

January 6 - The Egyptians celebrated this day as the Feast of Kore, the Goddess of Fertility and of cereal grains and agriculture. 1066 Harold Godwinson was crowned King of England. 1205 Philip of Swabia became King of the Romans. 1449 Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI was crowned at Mistra. 1494 the first Mass in the New World was celebrated at La Isabela, Hispaniola. 1540 King Henry VIII of England married Anne of Cleves. 1579 The Union of Atrecht was signed. 1649 English Civil War: The Rump Parliament voted to put Charles I on trial. 1661 English Restoration: The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully tried to seize control of London. 1690 Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I, became King of the Romans.

History Trivia

January 5, 1066, Edward the Confessor, King of England, died, sparking warfare between various claimants to his throne. 1355 Charles I of Bohemia was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Milan. 1477 Charles the Bold was killed at the Battle of Nancy at which time Burgundy became part of France. 1500 Duke Ludovico Sforza conquered Milan. 1527 Felix Manz, a leader of the Anabaptist congregation in Zürich, was executed by drowning. 1554 A great fire occurred in Eindhoven, Netherlands. 1675 Battle of Colmar, the French army beat Brandenburg.

History Trivia

January 4, 46 BC Julius Caesar defeated Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. In 48 BC, Julius Caesar arrived in Greece in pursuit of his rival, Pompey, whom he later defeated at Pharsalus. 871 at the Battle of Reading Ethelred of Wessex fought and was badly defeated by a Danish invasion army. 1490 Anna of Brittany announced that all those who would ally with the king of France would be considered guilty of the crime of lèse majesté. 1493 Christopher Columbus left the New World, ending his first journey. 1642 King Charles I of England sent soldiers to arrest members of Parliament. 1698 most of the Palace of Whitehall in London, the main residence of the English monarchs, was destroyed by fire.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

History Trivia

January 3, 106 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero was born. This day was set aside to honor the Roman Goddess of Peace, Pax, whose temple stood open in Rome during times of peace, but was closed during war. 1431 Joan of Arc was handed over to Bishop Pierre Cauchon. 1496 Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine. 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

History Trivia

January 2,69 AD Vitellius was named emperor. On this day the Egyptians, and many Romans, celebrated the Advent of Isis, the Egyptian Mother Goddess. 366 The Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine River and invaded the Roman Empire. 533 Mercurius became Pope John II, the first pope to adopt a new name upon elevation to the papacy. 1492 Reconquista, the emirate of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrendered.

History Trivia

January 1, 45 BC Caesar introduced the Julian calendar. Julius Caesar's calendar reform - 365 days in 12 months with leap years every four years - was introduced. 43 BC Cicero delivered his "Fifth Philippic" (fifth of a series of speeches condemning Mark Antony) in the Roman Senate. 27 BC Octavian became the first emperor of Rome, and took the name Caesar Augustus. 69 AD Roman legions in Germany refused to renew the oath of allegiance to Emperor Galba. They rebelled and proclaimed Aulus Vitellius Germanicus as emperor. 138 AD, Caesar Aelius died. 193 AD Pertinax became emperor. 193 The Senate chose Pertinax against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman Emperor. 1001 Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary was named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. 1259 Michael VIII Palaiologos was proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris. 1438 Albert II of Habsburg was crowned King of Hungary. 1515 King Francis I of France succeeded to the French throne. 1527 Croatian nobles elected Ferdinand I of Austria as king of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin. 1600 Scotland began its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25. 1651 Charles II was crowned King of Scotland.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

History

December 31, 192 The Roman emperor Commodus, whose brutal reign ended 90 years of peaceful prosperity, was assassinated. 406 Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, which began an invasion of Gaul. 535 Byzantine General Belisarius completed the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Ostrogothic garrison of Syracuse, and ending his consulship for the year. 1229 James I of Aragon the Conqueror enteredMedina Mayurqa (Palma, Spain) thus consummating the Christian reconquest of the island of Majorca.

1502 Cesare Borgia executed rival leaders. The infamous Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, sought to create a united government over central Italy with himself as monarch. However, the Orsini family headed up a strong league of nobles who stood against him. Borgia acted with great finesse and no scruples: even while he built his own army of loyal soldiers, he convinced the Orsinis and their associates that they had nothing to fear from him. He invited several leaders of the opposition to his castle, Senigallia, where he imprisoned Francesco Orsini, Paolo Orsini, Oliverotto da Fermo, and Vitellozzo Vitelli, all of whom were leaders of the Orsini faction. The latter two were murdered by strangulation. Already in control of Romagna, Perugia, and Urbino, Borgia now stood poised to conquer central Italy. However, his fortunes changed dramatically when his father died. After spending two years imprisoned in Spain, he joined his wife's brother, the King of Navarre, in a campaign against Castile and was killed in battle.

History Trivia

December 30, 41 AD, Titus was born. He was Roman emperor from 79-81 AD. During his reign the Coliseum was completed. 1066 Granada massacre: A Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. 1370 Pope Gregory XI was elected pope. Gregory attempted to foster peace between England and France during the Hundred Years' War, defeated Florence in its war against the Papal States, and returned the papacy to Rome from Avignon. 1460 The Lancastrians rout the Yorkists at the Battle of Wakefield, and execute Richard, Duke of York.

History Trivia

December 29, 1170 AD Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered while at vespers in Canterbury Cathedral by four knights of King Henry II. Acting on the frustrated outburst of King Henry II, four knights burst into Canterbury Cathedral and struck down the Archbishop. The knights fled. Henry would later do public penance for his ill-considered words that ultimately ended the quarrel between one-time friends.

History Trivia

December 28, 418 AD Boniface I became Roman Catholic pope. 1065 Westminster Abbey in London, built under the auspices of Edward the Confessor, was consecrated. Once a Benedictine monastery, this royal peculiarity was re-endowed by and enlarged under the oversight of Edward the Confessor, who was too ill to attend the consecration ceremonies.

History Trivia

December 27, 537 AD the third Cathedral of Santa Sophia at Constantinople was dedicated. The first two were destroyed but this one is still in use, a masterpiece of Byzantine architecture.

History Trivia

December 26, 795 AD Leo III was elected Roman Catholic pope. Pope Saint Leo recognized Charlemagne as the patricius of the Romans, and was later physically attacked and accused of misconduct. It was Leo who crowned Charlemagne Emperor, an act which helped widen the schism between East and West by firmly allying the papacy with the Western empire.

History Trivia

December 25, is the date recognized by the Roman Catholic Church for the birth of Jesus Christ. 336 AD the first recorded celebration of Christmas on Dec. 25th took place in Rome. 795 Pope Adrian I died. The relationship of Adrian to Charlemagne was considered an ideal expression of Church and State in a united Christian society.
800 Charlemagne, King of the Franks, was crowned the first Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome. 875 Charles the Bald was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1000 Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary. 1066 William the Conqueror was crowned king of England, at Westminster Abbey, London. 1100Baldwin of Boulogne was crowned the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity. 1130 Count Roger II of Sicily was crowned the first King of Sicily. 1156Peter the Venerable died. As Abbot of Cluny, Peter of Montboissier made great reforms to the monastery that restored its influence in European religious politics.
1223 St. Francis of Assisi assembled the first Nativity scene. 1261 John IV Lascaris of the restored Eastern Roman Empire was deposed and blinded by orders of his co-ruler Michael VIII Palaeologus. 1559 Pius IV was elected pope. Born Giovanni Angelo de'Medici, Pius concluded the Council of Trent and pursued reforms of the Papal Curia.

History Trivia

December 24, 3 BC, Servius Sulpicius Galba was born. He was emperor of Rome from 68-69 AD. 563 The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople was dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by earthquakes. 640 Pope John IV was elected. In his brief pontificate, John sent help to the victims of invaders in Dalmatia, opposed monothelitism and the Irish choice for the date of Easter, and defended the orthodoxy of Pope Honorius I. 1167 King John I of England was born. The youngest son of King Henry II, John lacked the trust of his barons and was maneuvered into signing the Magna Carta. 1294 Pope Boniface VIII was elected Pope, replacing St. Celestine V, who had resigned.

History Trivia

December 23, 619 AD Boniface V became Roman Catholic pope. 962 Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city of Aleppo. 1116 St. Ivo of Chartres died. Bishop of Chartres, Ivo is generally considered the most learned canonist of his times.

History Trivia

December 22, 69 Roman Emperor Vitellius was killed in a street battle in Rome by soldiers of Vespasian, who succeeded Vitellius as emperor. 1216 the Dominican order formally sanctioned. Founded by St. Dominic, the Dominican order of mendicant friars placed a great deal of emphasis on scholarship as well as preaching. The organization received official sanction from Pope Honorius III.

History Trivia

December 21,69 the end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian became the fourth Emperor of Rome within a year. 882 Hincmar of Reims died. As archbishop of Reims, Hincmar was one of the most inlfuential political and ecclesiastical figures of Carolingian Europe. 1140 Conrad III of Germany besieged Weinsberg. 1118 Thomas A. Becket was born. 1401 Masaccio
(Tommaso di Giovanni di Simone Guidi), an important painter of early Renaissance Florence was born.

History Trivia

December 20, 44 BC Cicero, the great Roman orator and statesman, delivered his third Philippic (one of 4 speeches against Mark Antony) in the Roman Senate. 69 Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, entered Rome to claim the title of emperor. 217 The papacy of Zephyrinus ends. Callixtus I was elected as the sixteenth pope, but was opposed by the theologian Hippolytus who accused him of laxity and of being a Modalist, one who denies any distinction between the three persons of the Trinity.1192 Richard the Lion-Heart was captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after signing a treaty with Saladin ending the Third crusade.
1334 Benedict XII was elected pope. The third pope to reside at Avignon, Benedict attempted to reform the church and its religious orders. His pontificate saw the beginning of the Hundred Years' War.

History Trivia

December 19, 211 Publius Septimius Geta, co-emperor of Rome, was lured to come without his bodyguards to meet his brother Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), do discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrived, the Praetorian Guard murdered him and he died in the arms of his mother Julia Domna. 324 Licinius abdicated his position as Roman Emperor. 1154 Henry II of England was crowned at Westminster Abbey.1187 Clement III became Pope. The pontificate of Clement saw the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in the Third Crusade. 1490 Anne, Duchess of Brittany, was married to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor by proxy.

History Trivia

December 18, 218 BC Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal's Carthaginian forces defeated those of the Roman Republic. 1271 – Kublai Khan renames his empire "Yuan" (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia and China. 1352 Innocent VI became Pope. Innocent was a law professor before taking holy orders. As pope, he made reforms to the papal Curia at Avignon.

History Trivia

December 17, 63 AD Lazarus died again (according to tradition). 546 Gothic War: The Ostrogoths of King Totila conquer Rome by bribing the Byzantine garrison. 920 Romanos I was crowned co-emperor of the underage Emperor Constantine VII. 942 Assassination of William I of Normandy. 1187 Pope Gregory VIII died. In his brief pontificate, Gregory initiated the Third Crusade and began reforms in the Curia.
1531 Pope Clement VII established a parallel body to the Inquisition in Lisbon, Portugal. 1538 Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII of England.

History Trivia

December 16, 882 AD Marinus I was elected Roman Catholic pope, replacing the murdered John VIII. 955,18-year-old Ottaviano, the only son of Duke Alberic II of Spoleto, who ruled Rome, became Pope John XII when his father ordered his election. John's pontificate lasted nine years, and he is said to have died in the arms of his mistress. 1431 Henry VI of England was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris. Though young Henry had been proclaimed king at age ten months, it was not until he was ten years old that he was officially crowned at Notre Dame Cathedral. 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born. The first wife of King Henry VIII of England, Catherine was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. 1497 Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, the point where Bartolomeu Dias had previously turned back to Portugal. 1653 Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell became 'lord protector' of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

History Trivia

December 15, 37 AD, Nero was born. He was the Roman emperor who is alleged to have fiddled while Rome burned. 533 Byzantine general Belisarius defeated the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Ticameron. In 687, Sergius I (Saint Sergius) was elected Roman Catholic pope. A significant pontiff of the 7th century, Sergius showed a particular interest in the Anglo-Saxons and the Franks. 1167Sicilian chancellor Stephen du Perche moved the royal court to Messina to prevent a rebellion. In 1256 Hulagu Khan captured and destroyed the Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut in present-day Iran as part of the Mongol offensive on Islamic southwest Asia.
In 1467 Stephen III of Moldavia defeated Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, with the latter being injured thrice, at the Battle of Baia.

History Trivia

December 14, 867 AD Adrian II was elected Roman Catholic pope. Adrian had difficulties with international politics. The eighth ecumenical council and the fourth Council of Constantinople took place during his reign. He died on this date in 872. In 872 AD John VIII was elected Roman Catholic pope on the very day Pope Adrian II died. His pontificate was marked with political intrigue, and he is believed to have been murdered by conspirators involved in a plot of local politics.

History Trivia

December 13 1294 Saint Celestine V resigned the papacy after only five months; Celestine, who founded the Celestine order, was the first pope to abdicate. He had accepted the position only because the papacy had been vacant for years and needed a leader. In his eighties when elected, the work proved too problematic, and he resigned. 1545 Council of Trent began. The council would pass legislation dealing with the doctrinal challenges of the Protestant Reformation.

History Trivia

December 12 627 Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeated Emperor Khosrau II's Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh. 884 Charles the Fat inherited the West Frankish lands and briefly reunited the empire of his ancestor Charlemagne. 1098 First Crusade: Massacre of Ma'arrat al-Numan – Crusaders breached the town's walls and massacred about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they resorted to cannibalism. 1112 Tancred of Antioch died. 1189 Richard I left England, where he spent less than six months of his reign, to join the Third Crusade. 1408, The Order of the Dragon a monarchical chivalric order was created by Sigismund of Luxembourg, then King of Hungary.

History Trivia

December 11, The Ancient Roman religious festival Agonalia was held. The festival was also celebrated on January 9th, March 17th and May 21st. On each day a ram was sacrificed, probably as an offering to deities Janus and Angonius. In 359 Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, took office. In 969 Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II was assassinated by his wife Theofano and her lover, the later Emperor John I Tzimiskes. In 1192 Richard I was captured by Leopold, Duke of Austria, as he returned from the Third Crusade. In 1282 Llywellyn the Last, the last native Prince of Wales, was killed at Cilmeri, near Builth Wells, south Wales. In 1475 Pope Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici) was born. Leo contributed strongly to the power of the papacy, made Rome a center of culture, and excommunicated Martin Luther.

History Trivia

December 10, 1041 Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevated her adopted son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. In 1508 the League of Cambrai Formed. Ostensibly created as an alliance against the Turks, the true goals of the League, formed by Pope Julius II, Emperor Maximilian I, Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, were to launch a campaign against the Republic of Venice and divide its possessions among the allies. The allies were unable to act together because of their individual ambitions, and the league collapsed in 1510, when the pope joined with Venice, while Ferdinand became neutral. In 1520 Martin Luther burned his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine outside Wittenberg's Elster Gate. In 1541 Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed for having affairs with Catherine Howard, Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII.

History Trivia

December 9, 536 The Byzantine general Belisarius conquered Rome, claiming Italy for the Byzantine empire. In 730 at the Battle of Marj Ardabil the Khazars annihilated an Umayyad army and killed its commander, al-Djarrah ibn Abdullah. In 1165 King Malcolm IV of Scotland died. Known as the "maiden," Malcolm died young, and his short reign was marked by rebellion and tension with his cousin Henry II of England. In 1425 The Catholic University of Leuven, the the largest, oldest and most prominent university in Belgium was founded by John IV, Duke of Brabant and approved by a Papal bull by Pope Martin V.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

History Trivia

December 8,65 BC Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) was born. He was one of the most familiar and admired of the Roman poets and in 1542 Mary, Queen of Scots was born.
A Catholic queen in a land of Protestants, Mary posed a threat to her cousin Elizabeth of England, as well.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

History Trivia

December 7, 43 BC Roman orator and advocate Cicero was executed on the orders of the Mark Antony. In 909 Sa'id ibn Hussein, the 'divinely guided one', established a Shiite caliphate in Tunis, rival to Baghdad. 1254 Pope Innocent IV died. The pontificate of Innocent was marked by a long struggle with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, characteristic of the conflict between empire and papacy.

Monday, December 6, 2010

History Trivia

December 6, 1060 Béla I of Hungary was crowned king of Hungary. In 1240 Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev under Danylo of Halych and Voivode Dmytro fell to the Mongols under Batu Khan. In 1421 Henry VI was born. Henry VI was a mere child when he came to the throne on the death of his father Henry V. His weakness as a ruler and his occasional displays of mental instability exacerbated the Wars of the Roses.

Sunday, December 5, 2010

History Trivia

December 5, 63 BC Cicero read the last of his Catiline Orations. In 663 the Fourth Council of Toledo took place. In 771 Charlemagne became the sole King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman. In 1082 Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona was assassinated. In 1360 The French Franc was created. In 1408 Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reached Moscow. In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII issued the Summis desiderantes, a papal bull that deputized Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and lead to one of the most oppressive witch hunts in European history. In 1536 The 'Pilgrimage of Grace' against Henry VIII's Reformation was persuaded to disband by the duke of Norfolk.

1443, Pope Julius II was born. One of the most powerful rulers of the Renaissance, Julius was more concerned with political matters than theological ones, working hard to restore and preserve the Papal States and leading military efforts to hold off the encroaching forces of France. When defecting cardinals threatened another schism, he called the Fifth Lateran Council, and overturned another military coup with the help of Swiss troops.

Though he was enormously successful in keeping Italy together politically and militarily, Julius is perhaps best known as a patron of the arts, and is particularly remembered for his patronage of Michelangelo, who completed the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel barely a year before the pope's death.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

History Trivia

December 4, 306 Martyrdom of Saint Barbara. 771 Austrasian King Carloman died, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.1093 Anselm of Canterbury was consecrated as Archbishop. In 1110 First Crusade: The Crusaders sack Sidon. 1154 Nicholas Breakspear was elected Pope Hadrian IV, the only Englishman to become pope. 1259 Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.1563 The final session of the Council of Trent was held (it opened on December 13, 1545).

Friday, December 3, 2010

History Trivia

December 3, 741 St. Zachary began his reign as Catholic Pope succeeding Gregory III. In 1347 Pope Clemens VI declared the Roman tribunal Coke di Rienzo as heretics. 1368 Charles VI of France was born. Known as "Mad" and as "Well-Beloved," Charles had a long reign during which he remained primarily a figurehead because of his occasional fits of madness. In 1557 1st Covenant of Scottish protestants formed. In 1586 Sir Thomas Herriot introduced potatoes to England, from Colombia.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

History Trivia

December 2,537 Pope Saint Silverius died. When Silverius refused to restore Anthimus as Patriarch of Constantinople, Empress Theodora ordered him deposed. He was banished and died on the island of Palmaria, murdered or starved to death. and in 1409 The University of Leipzig was founded by Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and his brother William II, Margrave of Meissen, and originally comprised four faculties. Since its inception the university has enjoyed over 600 years of uninterrupted teaching and research.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

History Trivia

December 1 193 AD, Pertinax became emperor. Also, the Festival of Juno occurred on this day. In 800 Charlemagne was called to the Vatican to judge the accusations against Pope Leo III whose enemies stated he was unfit to hold the sacred office. In 1135 Henry I of England died. Henry, the youngest son of William the Conqueror, was an able king who strengthened the monarch's executive position and ruled Normandy, as well. In 1170 Becket returned to Canterbury. After establishing an uneasy reconciliation with Henry II, the Archbishop returned to his See, ending a six-year-long self-imposed exile and in 1420 Henry V of England entered Paris.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

History Trivia

November 30, Saint Andrew, one of the Twelve Disciples of Christ was martyred on an X-shaped cross during the reign of Vespasian. The day is celebrated as St. Andrew's feast day. In 1016 Cnut, king of Denmark, claimed the throne of all England after Edmund 'Ironside', king of England, died. In 1406 Gregory XII became Pope. Gregory was the last of the Roman line of popes during the Western Schism. In 1700 at the Battle of Narva, a Swedish army of 8,500 men under Charles XII defeated a much larger Russian army at Narva and in 1718 Swedish king Charles XII died during a siege of the fortress Fredriksten in Norway.

Monday, November 29, 2010

History Trivia

November 29, 800 Charlemagne arrived at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III. In 939 Edmund was crowned as king of England as his half-brother Aethelstan died. 1268 Clement IV died. Upon the death of Clement, no new pope was elected for almost three years. In 1314 Philip IV of France died. In 1394 the Korean King Yi Song-gye, founder of the Joseon-Dynasty, moved the capital from Kaesŏng to Hanyang, today known as Seoul.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

November 28

November 28, 1291 Edward I's wife, Eleanor of Castile, diee. 1095 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appointed Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land. In 1443 Skanderbeg and his forces liberate Kruja in Middle Albania and raise the Albanian flag.

History Trivia

November 29, 800 Charlemagne arrived at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III. In 939 Edmund was crowned as king of England as his half-brother Aethelstan died. 1268: Clement IV died. Upon the death of Clement, no new pope was elected for almost three years. In 1314 Philip IV of France died. 1394 the Korean king Yi Song-gye, founder of the Joseon-Dynasty, moved the capital from Kaesŏng to Hanyang, today known as Seoul.

Saturday, November 27, 2010

History Trivia

November 27, 8 BC, Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) the great Roman lyric poet, died at Venusia, in Apulia at age 56. In 176 Emperor Marcus Aurelius granted his son Commodus the rank of Imperator and made him Supreme Commander of the Roman legions. In 511 Clovis, King of the Franks (Merovingian Dynasty)died. In 1095 Pope Urban II declared the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont and in 1295 the first elected representatives from Lancashire are called to Westminster by King Edward I to attend what later became known as "The Model Parliament".

Friday, November 26, 2010

History Trivia

November 26, 43 BC – The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian", later "Caesar Augustus"), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony was formed. 579 Pelagius II became Pope. When assistance from Emperor Tiberius II of Byzantium was not forthcoming, Pelagius convinced the Christian Franks to defend Rome from encroaching Lombards. He attempted to end a schism in the Church over the Three Chapters Controversy and began a controversy of his own when St. John IV the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople, assumed the title of "ecumenical patriarch" (a position that made him the equal of Pelagius, if not his superior). Pelagius was also responsible for building projects in Rome and turned his home into a hospital that was of great assistance when the city was struck by a disastrous flood. He himself died of the plague. In 783 the Asturian queen Adosinda was put up in a monastery to prevent her kin from retaking the throne from Mauregatus. In 885 AD, Danish Vikings attacked Paris and were paid by the Frankish emperor Charles the Fat not to destroy the city as they had in 845 and 856 AD. In 1476 Vlad III Dracula defeated Basarab Laiota with the help of Stephen the Great and Stephen V Bathory and became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.

Thursday, November 25, 2010

History Trivia

November 25, 1034 – Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots died. Donnchad, the son of his daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne. In 1120 The White Ship sank in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son of Henry I of England. In 1177 Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. In 1185 Urban III became Pope. Urban inherited a tense diplomatic relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, from his predecessor Lucius III. In 1276 The Habsburg dynasty was founded as Rudolf of Habsburg seized Vienna and made it his capital. 1277 Nicholas III was elected Pope
Nicholas began an administrative reform of the Papal States, inducing Rudolf I to acknowledge that the Italian province of the Romagna belonged to the church. In 1343 a tsunami, caused by an earthquake in the Tyrrhenian Sea, devastated Naples (Italy) and the Maritime Republic of Amalfi. In 1491 The siege of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, began.

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

History Trivia

November 24, 380 Theodosius I made his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople. In 1429 Joan of Arc unsuccessfully besieged La Charité and in 1542 at the Battle of Solway Moss: The English army defeated the Scots.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

History Trivia

November 23, 534 BC – Thespis of Icaria became the first actor to portray a character onstage. In 912 AD, Otto I (The Great) was born. He was King of Germany from 936-983 AD and was the first king to become Holy Roman Emperor in 961 AD. In 955King Eadred died. Eadred brought Northumbria permanently under English rule. In 1227 Polish Prince Leszek I the White was assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa. In 1248 Conquest of Seville by the Christian troops under King Ferdinand III of Castile and in 1499 Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck was hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.

Monday, November 22, 2010

History Trivia

November 22, 498: After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus was elected Pope in the Lateran Palace, while Laurentius was elected Pope in Santa Maria Maggiore. In 845 the first King of all Brittany, Nominoe, defeated the Frankish king Charles the Bald at the Battle of Ballon near Redon. In 1307 Pope Clement V issued the papal bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets and in 1428 Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and also known as known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was born.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

History Trivia

On November 21, 164 BC Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restored the Temple in Jerusalem. This event is commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah. In 235 AD, St. Anterus became Roman Catholic pope and in 1272, following Henry III of England's death on November 16, his son Prince Edward became King of England.

Saturday, November 20, 2010

History Trivia

On November 20 284 – Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. In 870 Edmund the Martyr died. Saint Edmund was king of East Anglia. His gruesome death at the hands of the Danes led to legends and a shrine at what is now Bury St. Edmund's, West Suffolk. In 1194 Palermo was conquered by Emperor Henry VI. In 1272 Barons Swear Fealty to Edward I. Upon the death of his father, King Henry III, Edward received the fealty of the English barons and succeeded to the throne and in 1407 a truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans was agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.

Monday, November 8, 2010

History Trivia

November 8, 1097: Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, went into exile after a breach with William II over papal supremacy and 1520 – Stockholm Bloodbath began: A successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces resulted in the execution of around 100 people.

Sunday, November 7, 2010

History Trivia

November 7, 680, The Sixth Ecumenical Council commenced in Constantinople. In 1492 The Ensisheim Meteorite, the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact, struck the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France. In 1619 Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland and England was crowned Queen of Bohemia and in 1665 The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, was first published.

Saturday, November 6, 2010

History Trivia

November 6, 355 Roman Emperor Constantius II promoted his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with the government of the Prefecture of the Gauls and in 1429 Henry VI was crowned King of England.

Friday, November 5, 2010

Guy Fawkes Day

November 5 - Guy Fawkes Day - in 1605 the Catholic convert conspired to blow up Parliament and the British royal family. The gunpowder plot was discovered and Fawkes was arrested before the event was to take place.

Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Bonfire Night, is an annual celebration, primarily in Great Britain, traditionally and usually held on the evening of 5 November. Festivities are centered on the use of fireworks and the lighting of bonfires. It is also celebrated in former British Colonies such as Australia and New Zealand.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

History Trivia

On November 4,1333 The River Arno flooding caused massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani. In 1429 Joan of Arc liberated Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier. In 1501 – Catherine of Aragon (later Henry VIII's first wife) met Arthur Tudor, Henry VIII's older brother – they would later marry. In 1576 Eighty Years' War: In Flanders, Spain captured Antwerp (after three days the city was nearly destroyed) and in 1677 the future Mary II of England married William, Prince of Orange. They would later jointly reign as William and Mary.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

History Trivia

On November 3, 1468 Liège was sacked by Charles I of Burgundy's troops and in 1493 Christopher Columbus first sighted the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

All Souls Day

The origins of All Souls' Day (Day of the Dead) in European folklore and folk belief are related to customs of ancestor veneration practiced worldwide, such as the Chinese Ghost Festival or the Latin American Day of the Dead. The Roman custom was that of the Lemuria.

The theological basis for the feast is the doctrine that the souls which, on departing from the body, are not perfectly cleansed from venial sins, or have not fully atoned for past transgressions, are debarred from the Beatific Vision, and that the faithful on earth can help them by prayers, almsdeeds and especially by the sacrifice of the Mass.

Monday, November 1, 2010

History Trivia

On November 1, 193 Pertinax became emperor and in 866 the Vikings seized control of Eboracum (York), the first major city to fall in their conquest of England.

All Saints Day

All Saints' Day: The origins of the holiday commemorating all the saints of the church are obscure, but by the mid-eighth century, November 1st was the day to honor all known and unknown saints in the Catholic Church. In 837, its general observance was ordered by Pope Gregory IV. The date may have been selected for its coincidence with pagan observations of the harvest, including the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain and the ancient Finnish celebration of Kekri.

Sunday, October 31, 2010

All Hallows' Eve

Historian Nicholas Rogers on the origin of All Hallows' Eve: while some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, whose original spelling was Samuin. The name is derived from Old Irish and means roughly "summer's end". A similar festival was held by the ancient Britons and is known as Calan Gaeaf.

The festival of Samhain celebrates the end of the "lighter half" of the year and beginning of the "darker half", and is sometimes regarded as the "Celtic New Year".

The ancient Celts believed that the border between this world and the Otherworld became thin on Samhain, allowing spirits (both harmless and harmful) to pass through. The family's ancestors were honoured and invited home while harmful spirits were warded off. It is believed that the need to ward off harmful spirits led to the wearing of costumes and masks.

Saturday, October 30, 2010

History Trivia

On October 30 in 852 Swithun, counselor to Kings Egbert and Aethelwulf, became Bishop of Winchester and in 1485 Henry VII was crowned King of England.

Friday, October 29, 2010

History Trivia

On October 29 1618 English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh was executed for treason under a sentence passed 15 years earlier. He was a known writer, poet, soldier, courtier,spy and explorer who was also largely known for popularising tobacco in England. He fell out of favor with Queen Elizabeth I when his secret marriage to Elizabeth "Bess" Throckmorton was discovered. Because they were wed without the Queen's permission, they were imprisoned in the Tower of London. After being released, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.

Thursday, October 28, 2010

History Trivia

On October 28, in 312 AD Roman emperor Constantine I, the Great, defeated Maxentius, his major rival in the west, at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge and became undisputed master of Rome. In 1401 Catherine of Valois was born. The neglected daughter of King Charles VI of France, Catherine married King Henry V of England and gave birth to his son, Henry VI. After her husband's untimely death, she began a relationship with Owen Tudor and married him in secret. One of their sons was the father of King Henry VII.

Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Runes: Celtic Cast

Runes: Celtic Cast: Elhaz
Elhaz represents your power to protect yourself and those around you. It also connotes the thrill and joy of a successful hunt. You are in a very enviable position right now, because you are able to maintain what you have built and reach your current goals.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Monday, October 25, 2010

History Trivia

On October 25, 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer died at the age of 57. He was the first poet to be buried in Westminster Abbey. In 1415, in Northern France, England won the Battle of Agincourt over France during the Hundred Years' War. Almost 6000 Frenchmen were killed while fewer than 400 were lost by the English.

Sunday, October 24, 2010

History Trivia

On October 24, 51 AD, Domitian was born. He was Roman emperor from 81-96 AD and in 1537 Jane Seymour, the third wife of England's King Henry VIII, died after giving birth to Prince Edward. Prince Edward became King Edward VI.

Saturday, October 23, 2010

History Trivia

On October 23, 42 BC Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio, leader of the plot to murder Julius Caesar, committed suicide and in 1642 Royalist forces defeated the Parliamentarians at Edgehill, the first major battle of the English Civil War.

Friday, October 22, 2010

History Trivia

On October 22,741 AD, French king Charles Martel, the grandfather of the great emperor Charlemagne, died at age 53.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

History Trivia

On October 21, 1096 The People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit, was slaughtered by Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Civetot and in 1422 when Henry VI was eight months old he succeeded to the English throne, and shortly afterwards, by the death in 1422 of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, he became titular king of France.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

UK Fans - BBC Four History Night

BBC Four History Night
From Thursday 7.30pm BBC Four
In Seven Ages of Britain, David Dimbleby looks at a rare children's toy; an antique jigsaw puzzle depicting the world.

•Seven Ages of Britain: Age
of Empire
•In Search of Medieval Britain: Scotland
•Michael Wood's Story of England

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

History Trivia

On October 19, 202 BC, the Romans under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal's army of Carthaginians and Numidians in the Battle of Sama in the Second Punic War. In 439 AD, Gaiseric, King of the Vandles, seized the Roman city of Carthage, and made it his capital. In 1466 the Treaty of Torun ended the Thirteen Years' War between Poland and the Teutonic Knights, reuniting Pomerania with the rest of the country.and in 1469 Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile creating the alliance that will unify Spain.

Monday, October 18, 2010

History Trivia

On October 18, 514 AD, the Mayan city of Chichen Itza was first occupied by the Itzas. In 768 AD, Charlemagne and his brother Carloman were crowned co-rulers of the Franks, after the death of their father, Pepin the Short. In 1016 Cnut of Denmark became the heir of Edmund Ironside, King of England, with victory at Ashingdon and in 1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, effectively banning Protestantism in France.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

History Trivia

On October 17, 532 Pope Boniface II died. In 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross, the English were victorious over the Scots. In 1404 Innocent VII became Pope. During his pontificate, Innocent summoned a council in an attempt to heal the Western Schism but it never assembled.

Saturday, October 16, 2010

History Trivia

On October 16, 1793, Queen Marie Antoinette was beheaded during the French Revolution

Friday, October 15, 2010

History Trivia

On October 15, 70 BC, Virgil was born. He is considered to be one of the greatest classical poets of the Roman Empire and in 1389 Pope Urban VI died.

Thursday, October 14, 2010

History Trivia

On October 14, 996 AD Hugh Capet, the French king who founded the Capetian line, died in Paris at age 56 and in 1066 William the Conqueror defeated Harold Godwinson (Harold II) heir to the English throne, in the famous Battle of Hastings, which resulted in the Norman conquest of England.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

History Trivia

On October 13,54 AD, Emperor Claudius died from poison given him by his physician Xenophon and his empress Agrippina, and Nero became emperor of Rome. (Some debate this story, but it was not beyond the ambitious Agrippina). In 1307, on Friday the 13th, King Philip IV "the Fair" of France arrested all the Templar Knights.

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

History Trivia

On October 12, 1428 the Siege of Orleans began which lasted until Joan of Arc persuaded King Charles VII of France to send an army to relieve the city in April. In 1537 King Edward VI was born; he was the only son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
(3rd wife); he became King at the age of 9 and died in his early teens.

Monday, October 11, 2010

History Trivia

On October 11, 732 AD, Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer), the great Frankish leader, defeated the Moors in the famous Battle of Tours, ending the Moorish advance into Europe. In 1303 Pope Boniface VIII died. 1521 Pope Leo X granted Henry VIII the title 'Defender of the Faith' for a tract defending Catholicism And of interest in 1982 Henry VIII's flagship 'Mary Rose' was raised to the surface after 437 years at the bottom of the Solent.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

History Trivia

On October 10th 680 Caliph Yazid killed his rival Hussein at Karbala. In 732 at the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel succeeded in stopping Muslim invaders and in 1361 Prince Edward (Black Prince) married Joan Plantagenet. The "Fair Maid of Kent" was not considered the ideal wife for the heir of the English throne. Joan is the mother of Richard II.

Saturday, October 9, 2010

History Trivia

On October 9th 1000 AD, Leif Ericson, the great Norse explorer, became the first European to land in North America, which he called Vinland. The date is celebrated as Leif Ericson Day in Norway. In 1047 Pope Clement II died and in 1390 King John I of Castile was killed in a fall from his horse while riding in a fantasia (equestrian performance) with some of the light horsemen known as the farfanes, who were mounted and equipped in the Arab style.

Friday, October 8, 2010

History Trivia

On October 8, 451 AD, the fourth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened in Rome.

Thursday, October 7, 2010

History Trivia

On October 7th 1571 The 'Holy League' of the Papal States, Spain and Venice routed the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto.

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

1,111 Books for Soldiers

Omaha's The Morning Blend has featured my publisher's book project to send donated books to our deployed military on the Wednesday website. You can access Canonbridge's site via the Morning Blend link or directly at www.canonbridge.com.

http://www.omahamorningblend.com/videos/104356774.html

History Trivia

On October 6, 877 Charles the Bald died. In 891 Formosus was elected Pope. During his Pontificate, he attempted to liberate Rome from the Spoletan Holy Roman co-emperors Guy and his son Lambert, crowned Arnulf of the East Franks Emperor and requested he invade Italy which left the German states in discord.

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Kenaz

Kenaz foretells the coming of clarity and knowledge. It is time for you to grow by exchanging knowledge with others. Opportunities are upon you.

Monday, October 4, 2010

History Trivia

On October 4th 1535 the first English translation of the entire bible was printed, with translations by Tyndale and Coverdale and in 1582, the Gregorian calendar was reformed. To adjust the inaccuracy in the date caused by an extra day per century in the Julian calendar, Pope Gregory XIII ordered ten days to be subtracted from October of 1582. The calendar jumped from October 4 to October 15 and the new Gregorian calendar, used today, was devised.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

History Trivia

On October 3rd 1187, Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, captured Jerusalem after a siege, ending 88 years of Christian rule and in 1226, Saint Francis of Assisi, the great Roman Catholic churchman and founder of the Franciscan order died at his beloved Poriuncula chapel at age 44.

Saturday, October 2, 2010

HistoryTrivia

On October 2nd in 1187 the Muslims, led by the warrior Saladin, captured Jerusalem which brought about the Third Crusade. In 1264 Pope Urban IV died. His brief pontificate was largely occupied with his attempts to restore papal power in Italy and in 1452 King Richard III of England was born.

Friday, October 1, 2010

History Trivia

On October 1st 331 BC, Alexander the Great defeated Persian emperor Darius III in the Battle of Arbela in Mesopotamia in one of the fifteen decisive battles of history. In 959, Edgar, King of the Mercians and Northumbrians, became King of the West Saxons and was then considered to be King of all England. In 965 John XIII became Pope. In 1207, Henry III was born. King of England 1216-1264, his 56-year reign was one of the longest in history. The building of the Westminster Abbey was his most enduring moment and in 1596 the Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned by Britain's Queen Elizabeth for trying to marry Mary the Queen of Scots.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

History Trivia

On September 30 420 Saint Jerome, one of the great scholars of the early Christian church, died at age 80. In 579 Pope Benedict I died and in 1227 Pope Nicholas IV was born.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

History Trivia

On September 29 106 BC Pompey the Great, statesman and general of the Roman Empire was born. He was the chief rival of Julius Caesar. In 440 AD, Saint Leo I, the Great, was elected Roman Catholic pope and in 1399 King Richard II of England abdicated; he was succeeded by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Richard was initially imprisoned and later died from "uncertain causes."

Monday, September 27, 2010

History Trivia

On September 28, 48 B.C. Pompey the Great was murdered on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt. In 551 B.C. teacher and philosopher Confucius was born. He dedicated most of his life to teaching, starting at the age of 22 when he opened his first school. In 929 King Wenceslas I, regarded as the patron saint of Bohemia, was assassinated and in 1066 William the Conqueror and his Norman army arrived in England, landing at Pevensey.

History Trivia

On September 27, 1009 Caliph al Hakim ordered the destruction of Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, a Christian holy site. In 1066 William the Conqueror, with a Norman army of 5,000 men, set sail from France for England, to claim the English throne and in 1540 Pope Paul III approved the first outline of the organization of the Jesuit Society, drafted by St. Ignatius of Loyola, the order's founder.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Books for Deployed Soldiers

Dear Wonderful Fans: Re books for our deployed soldiers. Don't miss the chance to participate! 1,111 Books for 11/11 via Canonbridge LLC (www.canonbridge.com) There is also a link on my webpage (www.maryannbernal.com) for your convenience. Thanks for participating in this great project.

Monday, September 20, 2010

History Trivia

On September 26 1143 Celestine II became Pope. A friend of Peter Abelard, Celestine was a scholar whose pontificate only lasted six months. In 1580, Francis Drake completed the first circumnavigation of the globe by an Englishman when he sailed into Plymouth and in 1687 The Parthenon in Athens, unscathed since 432 BC, was severely damaged by a gunpowder explosion.

History Trivia

On September 25 1066 - Battle of Stamford Bridge - The last Viking battle on English soil claimed the lives of Harald Hardrada and the brother of King Harold of England, Tostig. It also delayed Harold's arrival at Hastings, becoming a significant factor in the outcome of the Norman Conquest.

History Trivia

On September 24, 15 AD, Aulus Vitellius was born. He was one of the four emperors of 69 AD. In 622 the Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam, arrived in Medina after fleeing Mecca and in 768 AD Pepin the Short, King of the Franks and father of Charlemagne, died at age 54.

History Trivia

On September 23, 480 BC, the Battle of Salamis, Greece, the greatest of ancient naval battles, was won by Greece over Persia. Over 1,000 Persian ships were sunk by fewer than 400 Greek vessels and in 63 BC, Augustus (Octavian) was born. He was the Roman emperor at the time of Christ, and the founder in 27 BC of the Roman Empire as it was known after the end of the Roman Republic of Julius Caesar's time.

History Trivia

On September 22 530 both Boniface II and Dioscorus were consecrated as pope after the death of Pope Felix IV (or III). The schism that resulted would end with Dioscorus' death and in 1515 Anne of Cleves was born. The fourth wife of Henry VIII, Anne managed to obtain a divorce from the much-married king, maintained friendly relations with his family, and kept her head.

Friday, September 17, 2010

History Trivia

On September 21, 490 BC the Greeks under Miltiades decisively defeated the army of Darius I of Persia at the Battle of Marathon. In 19 BC, Virgil, the great Roman poet, died in Rome at age 50. In 454 AD Falvius Actius, Roman general and statesman was born and in 1745 a Jacobite army under 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' defeated government forces at the Battle of Prestonpans.

History Trivia

On September 20, 356 BC, Alexander the Great King of Macedonia and one of the greatest generals in history was born. In 451 AD the Romans defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne in France. In 1378 Western Schism began. The Avignon Papacy came to an end when Pope Gregory XI returned the papal see to Rome, then died before he could return to France. A Roman was elected to succeed him and took the name Urban VI. Urban was so hostile to the cardinals, who had achieved considerable power during the papacy's years in France, that thirteen members of the Sacred College went into conclave and chose another pope. This antipope took the name of Clement VII and took up residence at Avignon, beginning a schism that was characterized by the simultaneous administrations of two (and later three) popes, and which would last nearly 40 years and in 1633 Astronomer Galileo Galilei was tried before the Inquisition for teaching that the Earth orbits the Sun.

History Trivia

On September 19, 690, St. Theodore, the seventh archbishop of Canterbury and the first to rule the entire English Church, died. In 912, Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium,known as "the Wise" or "the Philosopher," was born. Emperor Leo VI issued imperial laws in Greek that became the legal code of the Empire and in 1356 the Battle of Poitiers was fought between England and France. Edward "the Black Prince" captured France's King John.

History Trivia

On September 18, 96 AD, Marcus Nerva became emperor of Rome after Emperor Domitian was stabbed to death with his wife's help and in 1180 Philip Augustus (Philip II) became sole King of France upon the death of his father.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

History Trivia

On September 17 530 Boniface II was selected Pope and in 1745 Jacobite leader Bonnie Prince Charlie entered Edinburgh, proclaiming his father James VIII of Scotland.

History Trivia

On September 16 335 BC Alexander the Great destroyed every building in Thebes, Egypt, except the temples and the house of the poet Pindar. In 1387 King Henry V of England was born and in 1400 Owain Glyndwr was proclaimed Prince of Wales after rebelling against English rule. He was the last Welsh-born Prince of Wales.

History Trivia

On September 15 53 AD, Trajan, Emperor of Rome 98-117 AD, was born and in 1159 Alexander III was crowned Roman Catholic pope.

Monday, September 13, 2010

The Morning Blend

Many thanks to Mary and Mike, co-hosts of The Morning Blend, for the warm welcome.

Friday, September 10, 2010

History Trivia

On September 14 786 Harun-al-Rashid became caliph. In 891 Pope Steven V who witnessed the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire died and in 1523 Pope Adrian VI the only Dutch pope, and the last non-Italian pope to be elected until Pope John Paul II in the twentieth century died.

History Trivia

On September 13, 81 AD Roman emperor Titus, who was on the throne when Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, died in Rome at age 40. In 604 Sabinianus was elected Roman Catholic pope. In 1321 Dante died. In 1598 King Philip II of Spain died and in 1645 The Royalists are routed at the Battle of Philiphaugh, defeating Charles I's cause in Scotland.

History Trivia

On September 12 1185 Byzantine emperor Andronicus I was tortured and executed by the Greek nobility, led by Isaac Angelus, during a war between the Byzantines and Norman invaders of the empire. In 1362 Pope Innocent VI died. In 1494 King Francis I was born and in 1683 John III of Poland and Charles of Lorraine lift the siege of Vienna, ending Ottoman expansion in Europe.

History Trivia

On September 11 814, Louis I, the Pious, succeeded his father, the great French king Charlemagne, as King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans. In 1297 Scotsman William Wallace defeated the English forces of Sir Hugh de Cressingham at the Battle of Stirling Bridge and in 1499 French forces took over Milan, Italy.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

History Trivia

On September 10, 422 Saint Celestine I was elected Roman Catholic pope. In 1167Empress Matilda died. Maud was the daughter of King Henry I, widow of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, and mother of King Henry II. She engaged in a civil war with Stephen of Blois over the crown of England. In 1487 Pope Julius III was born and in 1547 in the last battle between English and Scottish royal armies, the Scots were routed at Pinkie, Edinburgh.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

History Trivia

On September 9 490 B.C. The Battle of Marathon took place between the invading Persian army and the Athenian Army. The marathon race was derived from the events that occurred surrounding this battle. In 1087, William the Conqueror died in Rouen at age 59 after an accident while riding his horse. In 1513 The English killed James IV of Scotland and defeated his army at the Battle of Flodden Field, Northumbria and in 1598 Francesco Cenci, a powerful and vicious nobleman of Rome, was murdered.

History Trivia

On September 8 701 St. Sergius I (7th C Pope) died. In 1011 St. Alphege (or Elphege or Aelfheah), Archbishop of Canterbury, was captured by marauding Danes, held prisoner for months, and eventually murdered. In 1157 Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England, was born. In 1380 St. Bernardine of Siena was born. In 1276 John XXI was Elected Pope.

Saturday, September 4, 2010

History Trivia

On September 7 70 AD the Romans sacked Jerusalem, leaving only the "Wailing Wall" intact. In 1191 Richard I of England defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf, ending the sultan's aura of invincibility. In 1303 Philip IV of France had Pope Boniface VIII seized at his palace at Anagni. The Pope was quickly freed but died soon thereafter and in 1533, Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn was born.

History Trivia

On September 6, 973 Pope John XIII died. In 1522 Ferdinand Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe, but Magellan died en route. In 1651 Charles II spent the day hiding in an oak tree following defeat by Oliver Cromwell at Worcester and in 1666 The Great Fire of London was finally extinguished after much of the city and St Paul's Cathedral are lost.

History Trivia

On September 5, 394, Theodosius reunited the entire Roman empire for the last time with victory at the Battle of Frigidus and in 1316 John XXII, the second Roman Catholic pope to reside in Avignon, France rather than Rome, was crowned.

Friday, September 3, 2010

History Trivia

On September 4, 476 Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the western Roman Empire, was deposed when Odoacer proclaimed himself King of Italy. In 925 Athelstan crowned King - Athelstan was first elected king of Wessex and Mercia, Athelstan was crowned king of the entire country at Kingston and in 1241 Alexander III of Scotland was born.

Thursday, September 2, 2010

History Trivia

On September 3, 590 Gregory I was consecrated as pope and in 1189 Richard the Lionheart was crowned king of England

Wednesday, September 1, 2010

History Trivia

On September 2,31 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra's navy at Actium gave Octavian control of the Roman empire. In 44 BC, Cicero delivered his First Philippic, an attack on Mark Antony, in the Roman senate. In 490 Phidippides of Athens was sent to seek help against the invading Persian Army. The runner was the inspiration for the 26-mile marathon of the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.
In 595, St. John the Faster, Patriarch of Constantinople, died. In 1397 Francesco Landini a leading composer of 14th-century Italy died and in 1666 The Great Fire of London began in a bakery on Pudding Lane and destroyed much of the city.

Tuesday, August 31, 2010

History trivia

On September 1, 1141 Lucius III was elected Pope; in 1159 Adrian IV, the only English pope in history died. In 1339 King Edward III of England declared war on France and in 1422 Henry VI became King of England.

Monday, August 30, 2010

History Trivia

On August 31, 12 AD Caligula, Emperor of Rome 37-41 AD, was born. He was noted for his insanity and cruelty. In 30 AD Cleopatra, the famous queen of Egypt, killed herself supposedly by clasping an asp to her breast. In 161 AD Commodus, Emperor of Rome 180-192 AD was born. In 651, St. Aidan, a monk at Iona, Scotland, became the first bishop of Lindisfarne. In 1422 King Henry V of England died. 1888 the body of Mary Ann 'Polly' Nichols, the first of Jack the Ripper's five 'canonical' victims, was found and in 1997: Diana Princess of Wales, died in a car crash in a Paris underpass.

Saturday, August 28, 2010

History Trivia

On August 30 BC Roman warlord Mark Antony committed suicide on learning, falsely, that his lover Cleopatra was dead. In 257 Sixtus III became Roman Catholic Pope and in 1146 European leaders outlawed the crossbow.

Ancient Quotes

The secret of happiness is freedom. The secret of freedom is courage.

The strong do what they have to do and the weak accept what they have to accept.

It is frequently a misfortune to have very brilliant men in charge of affairs. They expect too much of ordinary men.

Thucydides (born ca. 460-455 B.C.) Greek Historian

Friday, August 27, 2010

History Trivia

On August 28, 430 AD Saint Augustine, the great Christian theologian, died at age 75 and in 476 the western Roman Empire founded by Augustus in 27 BC ended at Ravenna, where Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the barbarian leader Odovacar (Odoacer).

Thursday, August 26, 2010

History Trivia

On August 27 479 BC The invasion of Greece by Persian emperor Xerxes is defeated by Pausanias at the Battle of Plataea and in 550 BC Confucius, famous wise man of China was born.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

History Trivia

On August 26, 55 B.C. - Britain was invaded by Roman forces under Julius Caesar. In
1346 Edward III, claimant to the French crown, crushed the army of Philip VI of France at the Battle of Crecy and in 1498 Michelangelo was commissioned to make the "Pieta."

The Morning Blend

Attention Omaha area fans: Your favorite author will be featured on The Morning Blend on Monday, September 13th. The live program airs on channel 5 from 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m.

HistoryTrivia

On August 25 608 AD Boniface IV became Roman Catholic pope and in 1270 King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) died in northern Africa while leading the Eighth Crusade.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

History Trivia

On August 24 0079 Mount Vesuvius erupted killing approximately 20,000 people. The cities of Pompeii, Stabiae and Herculaneum were buried in volcanic ash. In 0410 the Visigoths overran Rome. This event symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire.In 1456 the printing of the Gutenberg Bible was completed and in 1572 the Catholics began their slaughter of the French Protestants in Paris. The killings claimed about 70,000 people.

Sunday, August 22, 2010

History Trivia

On August 23, 1305, Scottish rebel William Wallace was hung, drawn and quartered by the English at Smithfield, London.

Saturday, August 21, 2010

History Trivia

On August 22, 1485 Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth and Henry VII became the first king of the Tudor dynasty. In 1567 The "Council of Blood" was established by the Duke of Alba. This was the beginning of his reign of terror in the Netherlands. In 1572 the Earl of Northumberland was executed for treason in York, England. In 1582 King James VI was captured in the Ruthven raid while he was hunting. He was held captive until June of 1583 and in 1642 Charles I raised the royal standard at Nottingham, igniting the English Civil War.

Friday, August 20, 2010

History Trivia

On August 21 1165 Philip II (Philip Augustus) the first king of the Capetian dynasty in France was born.

History Trivia

On August 20, 1119 Henry I defeats an invasion of his Norman lands by Louis VI, King of France, at the Battle of Brémule.

Wednesday, August 18, 2010

History Trivia

On August 19, 480 BC Spartan soldiers made an heroic last stand against the Persians at the pass at Thermopylae. The Battle of Thermopylae was won by the Persians under Xerxes. The main Greek force escaped, however and they eventually won the war.
In 14 AD Roman emperor Augustus died at Nola at age 76 after a 41-year reign.
In 312 AD Roman emperor Constantine the Great supposedly saw a vision of a cross and the words, "In this sign conquer," causing him to eventually embrace Christianity.

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

History Trivia

On August 18, 328 AD Saint Helena, the mother of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, died at age 82 and in 1227 Genghis Khan, the great Mongol conqueror, died at age 60.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

4th century Roman villa near Aberystwyth

http://www.zeenews.com/news645112.html

London: Archaeologists have discovered a 4th century Roman villa near Aberystwyth in north and mid Wales, which they claim suggests that the Roman control over Britain stretched even further than first thought.

Roman villas were high-status homes of wealthy landowners which sat at the heart of a farming estate. They are common throughout southern England and south Wales, but rare in north and mid Wales.

The newly discovered villa is likely to have belonged to a wealthy landowner, with pottery and coin finds on the site indicating occupation in late 3rd and early 4th centuries AD, according to the archaeologists.

It was roofed with local slates which were cut for a pentagonal roof. The walls were built of local stone and there was a cobbled yard, 'The Daily Telegraph' reported.

It was thought that Wales was a "military zone", abandoned by the Romans a few decades after the first century.

Dr Toby Driver of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and Jeffrey Davies, formerly of Aberystwyth University, had previously excavated at nearby Trawscoed Roman fort, which had been abandoned by AD 130.

"Our trial excavations this year have confirmed the remains of an imposing Romano-British building in the heart of mid-Wales, where no Roman villas were previously known. "The discovery raises significant new questions about the regional economy and society in late Roman Wales, and raises the possibility of future villa discoveries in the surrounding countryside," they said.

Roman Fortress of Caerleon

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-10937007

Major buildings find at Roman fortress of Caerleon

The Roman town of Isca was much larger than previously thought

Archaeologists have discovered several large buildings at the fortress of Caerleon in south Wales, one of Britain's best known Roman sites.

The major discovery was made by chance by students learning to use geophysical equipment.

Cardiff University's Peter Guest said the find was "totally unexpected" .

It is possible the buildings, which may include baths and temples, are first evidence of Roman plans to develop Caerleon into a major settlement.

Caerleon (Isca), which dates from AD 75, is one of three permanent legionary fortresses in the UK, and was used for 200 years. The others at Chester and York - are mostly buried and difficult to excavate.

The students were using the geophysical equipment in fields outside the Roman fortress - an area that was not thought to have been extensively occupied in the Roman period.

Ten days later the students and their tutors found the outlines of a series of huge buildings squeezed into the ground between the amphitheatre and the River Usk.

Dr Guest, a senior lecturer in Roman archaeology, said: "Caerleon is one of the best known Roman sites in Britain, so it was a great surprise to realise that we had found something completely new and totally unexpected.

He said the buildings' ground plans suggest that they were of some importance.

"We think they could have included markets, administrative buildings like town halls, bath houses, store buildings, or even possibly temples.

Final excavations are going on at the fortress site "The biggest is enormous and must be one of the largest buildings known from Roman Britain."

Dr Guest said: "We can only guess what it was for, but at the moment we're working on the idea that it had something to do with a harbour on the river, although it does look uncannily like a residential villa building - if that's the case it was built on a palatial scale."

The layout and scale of the buildings look like they should be at the centre of a town or city, the archaeologist added.

"But here at Caerleon we seem to have the central public spaces without the surrounding city - where are the people who would have used these buildings?."

"That's the great thing about an archaeological discovery like this - lots of questions that we just don't have definite answers to at the moment."

The latest discovery was made as part of ongoing excavations by the university.

Over the last four years, eight previously unknown barrack blocks have been found at Caerleon, along with three large granaries, a monumental metal workshop and a very large store building.

Final excavations are taking place for the next six weeks inside the Roman fortress involving staff and students from University College London (UCL) and it is hoped more discoveries will be made.

The dig is open to the public and there will be guided tours of the excavation site.

The Roman museum there dates back 150 years.

History Trivia

On August 15, 1237 Berlin was founded by fishermen and traders.

Saturday, August 14, 2010

History Trivia

On August 14, 1040, Duncan, King of Scots was murdered by Macbeth, who became king and in 1281 a Mongol armada with 150,000 men was destroyed by a typhoon, which ended 53 days of fighting with the Japanese.

Friday, August 13, 2010

History Trivia - Friday 13th

The most common explanation for the belief that Friday the 13th is unlucky is that there was a massacre of the Knights Templar on that date. The Knights formed one of the most important and most well known international organizations in the Middle Ages. Their destruction was one of the most well known events ever to fall on any Friday 13th.

The Knights Templar had been formed in 1118 to protect Christians from Muslims in the Holy Land. They were among the best soldiers of their era. They also ran Europe’s first international banking system. The Knights were good at both fighting and finance. They were bankers with swords.

Christian pilgrims headed for the Holy Land could deposit their funds with the Knights Templar in Europe. The way to Holy Land was dangerous and so the pilgrims were given coded statements of their finance. When they got to their lodgings along the way, their coded statement would be “debited” each time to pay for the accommodation. This early form of credit card saved the need to carry cash.

The Pope and French king were envious as they were too rich and powerful. Also the king needed additional revenue. In those days, there was no regular way to collect tax. He wanted to seize the assets of the Knights (having created all sorts of charges against them). The king’s soldiers moved on them. The pope excommunicated all the Knights in all the lands.

At dawn on Friday October 13, 1307, under the orders King Philip IV of France, a well-planned operation was unleashed to seize every Knight Templar in France. Estimates of the number of knights involved vary from about 2,000 up to 15,000. Only 20 escaped.

Various allegations were made against them dealing with heresy, blasphemy and immorality. Virtually all were tortured to death to make them agree to “confessions”. Many were executed. All of their assets were taken by the king.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Sowilo
The Sun Rune, denotes power and strength. That which you want may be attained. Sowilo also denotes mental clarity and added warmth to your relationships.

History Trivia

There was an old folk-belief in Norway that Christ's Cross was hewn on August 11th, and therefore the axe should not be used. Also on August 11th, 117 Hadrian officially became Roman Emperor. It is claimed Trajan, his adoptive father, had not wanted Hadrian to succeed him, but was thwarted by his wife, Plotina, who covered up her husband's death until she could make sure of Hadrian's acceptance by the senate. Trajan died on the 8th of August, but Hadrian only became emperor 3 days later.

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

History Trivia

In 48 BC Julius Caesar and Pompey faced off against each other in the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar had about 22,000 men and Pompey had twice that, but Caesar still won, losing only about 250 men. 24,000 of Pompey's men surrendered; the rest died or fled the battle.

Monday, August 9, 2010

History Trivia

On August 9, 48 BC Julius Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus, which gave Caesar absolute control of Rome. In 378 the Goths destroyed the eastern Roman army and killed the emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople and in 1119 AD, Calixtus II was crowned Roman Catholic pope.

Sunday, August 8, 2010

History Trivia

On August 8, 117 a highly revered emperor, Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus) died. In 1356 Edward "the Black Prince" began a raid north from Aquitaine and in 1588 The Spanish Armada was defeated by the English fleet ending an invasion attempt.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Ancient Quotes

The best way to keep good acts in memory is to refresh them with new.

The first virtue is to restrain the tongue; he approaches nearest to the gods who knows how to be silent, even though he is in the right.

Marcus Porcius Cato, 95-46 BC, Cato the Younger

Friday, August 6, 2010

History Trivia

Pope Sixtus II(August 30, 257 - August 6, 258)died as a martyr during the persecution by Emperor Valerian. During the persecutions,numerous bishops, priests, and deacons were put to death. Pope Sixtus II was one of the first victims of this persecution, being beheaded on August 6. He was martyred along with six deacons —Januarius, Vincentius, Magnus, Stephanus, Felicissimus and Agapitus.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

Ancient Quotes

After I'm dead I'd rather have people ask why I have no monument than why I have one.

An angry man opens his mouth and shuts his eyes.

Old age isn't so bad when you consider the alternatives.

Marcus Porcius Cato, 95-46 BC, Cato the Younger

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

History Trivia

The lighthouse of Alexandria, a tower built in the 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC), was between 115 and 135 meters (383 – 440 ft); it was among the tallest structures on Earth for many centuries. The island that it was built on, Pharos, eventually spawned the Latin word for lighthouse. The lighthouse is considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and was, unfortunately,destroyed by an earthquake.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Ehwaz
Ehwaz represents movement. You may be closing in on reaching your current goals. Your life may be changing for the better. Harmony with others should come easy for you at this time.

Monday, August 2, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Music is part of us, and either ennobles or degrades our behavior.

Who would give a law to lovers? Love is unto itself a higher law.

Music is so naturally united with us that we cannot be free from it even if we so desired.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, (A.D. 475-523?), Roman Statesman

Sunday, August 1, 2010

History Trivia

Mankind is poised midway between the gods and the beasts.

Knowledge, if it does not determine action, is dead to us.

Knowledge has three degrees-opinion, science, illumination. The means or instrument of the first is sense; of the second, dialectic; of the third, intuition.

Plotinus 204 or 205 C.E. Egyptian Philosopher

Saturday, July 31, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Say not always what you know, but always know what you say.

To do nothing evil is good; to wish nothing evil is better.

Claudius 10 BC ~ 54 AD, Roman Leader

Friday, July 30, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Acquaintance lessens fame.

No one is free who does not lord over himself.

No one is more miserable than the person who wills everything and can do nothing.

Claudius 10 BC - 54 AD, Roman Leader

Thursday, July 29, 2010

History Trivia

On July 29, 1588 the English defeated the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines.

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

History Trivia

On July 28th, 1540 King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed. The same day, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Ansuz
Ansuz represents mankind's spiritual connection to God and the universe. It is often referred to as the "God Rune." This Rune embodies reason, truth and justice. It denotes the coming of knowledge and true counsel from a higher authority.


Monday, July 26, 2010

Ancient Quotes

The laws of nature are but the mathematical thoughts of God.

Euclid 325 BC - 265 BC Egyptian mathematician

Sunday, July 25, 2010

History Trivia

On July 26 0326 Constantine refused to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices. In 1394 Charles VI of France issued a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France and in 1564 Maximillian II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Saturday, July 24, 2010

Discussion Items for Book Clubs

Are you familiar with the Ninth century timeline? If not, what prompted you to read the book?

Did the author adequately capture the timeframe for you to visualize the actual locations referenced in the story? If not, what was missing?

Were you comfortable with the verbiage? If not, what did you find difficult? Did you find the language easier to read as the story developed? Did the language help transport you back to the Ninth century? If so, were you able to relate to the characters as products of Ninth Century mores and not judge them according to Twenty-first Century standards?

Did you find the character list and map helpful? How many times did you refer to the list of characters before you were comfortable with the names and relationships?
Who was your favorite character? Why? How does your character’s development change over the course of the story? Does your character undergo behavioral change(s)? If so, are you happy with the new persona? Does your favorite character exhibit similar traits to your own personality? How?

How do you feel about the Religious dilemma which plagued the pagan characters throughout the story? Do you understand the depth of the internal conflict? How would you react if you were forced to renounce the deity that you worshipped? Would you readily accept baptism? Would you continue to worship your divine being in secret? Would you feel guilty each time you attended a prayer service and received the sacraments?

How do you relate to the Soothsayer / Oracle references? Have there really been many changes since pagan times concerning superstitious beliefs and omens? Do you read your daily horoscope? Does Friday the 13th, walking under a ladder and having a black cat cross your path send a chill up your spine? Are we so different from our ancestors?

How do you feel about the treachery and intrigue which surrounded the royal court? How do you think the violence of the times affected the King’s decisions? How do you feel about war and conquest? Are we different today? Have we learned from our mistakes?

Was the novel a page turner? Did you have trouble putting the book down? What were your favorite storylines? Were you disappointed with the way the story ended? Are you looking forward to reading the sequel?

Would you contact the author to express your views? If so, visit the author’s webpage for email instructions.

Friday, July 23, 2010

Ancient Quotes

One good turn deserves another.

What power has law where only money rules.

You see a louse on someone else, but not a tick on yourself.

Gaius Petronius Arbiter 27-66 A.D, Emperor Nero's advisor

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Omaha Book Club - July 21, 2010


Thanks to Dana, Kristin, Deb, Ellie and Teresa for a fun evening and for your interest in "The Briton and the Dane." Thanks too for the great surprise with British food and a bottle of Mead!


Photos are posted on the In the News Tab at www.maryannbernal.com

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Ancient Quotes

It is easier to do many things than to do one thing continuously for a long time.

Our minds are like our stomachs; they are whetted by the change of their food, and variety supplies both with fresh appetites.

The pretended admission of a fault on our part creates an excellent impression.

We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.

We must form our minds by reading deep rather than wide.

Marcus Fabius Quintilian (35 - 90) Roman orator

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

AncientQuotes

Courage is of no value unless accompanied by justice; yet if all men became just, there would be no need for courage.

If all men were just, there would be no need for valor.

If I have done any deed worthy of remembrance, that deed will be my monument. If not, no monument can preserve my memory.

It is not the places that grace men, but men the places

It isn't positions which lend distinction, but men who enhance positions.


Agesilaus the Second 443 - 359 BC, King of Sparta 401-360 BC

Monday, July 19, 2010

History Trivia

On July 19 1525 the Catholic princes of Germany formed the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation and in 1553 fifteen-year-old Lady Jane Grey was deposed as Queen of England after claiming the crown for nine days. Mary, the daughter of King Henry VIII, was proclaimed Queen.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

History Trivia

On July 18 0064 the Great Fire of Rome began and in 1536 the authority of the pope was declared void in England.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

History Trivia

On July 17 1212 The Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade and in 1453 France defeated England at Castillon, France, which ended the 100 Years' War.

Friday, July 16, 2010

1600 Anniversary of the end of Roman-Britain

Attention UK Fans:

To commemorate the 1600 anniversary of the end of Roman-Britain, the History Channel UK is airing programs dedicated to the history of Great Britain. Features include Boudicca's Treasures, Henry VIII and revelations in King Arthur's Round Table.

Program schedule: Monday 19 July through Friday July 23rd at 8pm

US Fans: airdate is not available at this time

Thursday, July 15, 2010

History Trivia

On July 15 1099 Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders. In 1410 Poles and Lithuanians defeated the Teutonic knights at Tannenburg, Prussia and in 1685 the Duke of Monmouth was executed in Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemore.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

History Trivia

On July 14, 1223, in France, Louis VIII succeeded his father, Philip Augustus. In 1430 Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais. In 1456 Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade and in 1536 France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons, which aligned them against Spain.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Roman Coins in Britain

By Stefano Ambrogi

LONDON (Reuters Life!) - One of the largest hoards of Roman coins ever found in Britain has been unearthed in a field in Somerset, southwest England, by an amateur treasure hunter with a metal detector.

The stash of some 52,000 mostly bronze coins dating from the third century AD was buried in a large, well-preserved pot close to the picturesque town of Frome. It has yet to be valued.

Archaeologists are excited about the discovery because they say it sheds new light on the turbulent time, when Roman Britain suffered barbarian invasions, economic crises and civil wars.

To read the entire article go to:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/07/08/AR2010070802434.html

Monday, July 12, 2010

History Trivia

On July 12 1096 Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Sofia, Bulgaria. There they met their Byzantine escort, which brought them safely the rest of the way to Constantinople and in 1543 England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.

Sunday, July 11, 2010

History Trivia

On July 11 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany and in 1533, Henry VIII, who divorced his wife and became head of the church of England, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Ancient Quotes

What is food to one man is bitter poison to others.
Such evil deeds could religion prompt.
Nothing can be created from nothing.
The falling drops at last will wear the stone.
Lucretius (96 BC - 55 BC)

Friday, July 9, 2010

History Trivia

On July 9 0118 Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the city. In 0455 Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West and in 1540 England's King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.

Thursday, July 8, 2010

Paris Trivia

July 8 1951: Paris celebrated 2,000th birthday

Paris, the capital city of France, celebrated turning 2,000 years old. In fact, a few more candles would've technically been required on the birthday cake, as the City of Lights was most likely founded around 250 B.C.

The history of Paris can be traced back to a Gallic tribe known as the Parisii, who sometime around 250 B.C. settled an island (known today as Ile de la Cite) in the Seine River, which runs through present-day Paris. By 52 B.C., Julius Caesar and the Romans had taken over the area, which eventually became Christianized and known as Lutetia, Latin for "midwater dwelling." The settlement later spread to both the left and right banks of the Seine and the name Lutetia was replaced with "Paris." In 987 A.D., Paris became the capital of France. As the city grew, the Left Bank earned a reputation as the intellectual district while the Right Bank became known for business.

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Wait for that wisest of all counselors, Time.

Fishes live in the sea, as men do on land: the great ones eat up the little ones.

For famous men have the whole earth as their memorial.

Trees, though they are cut and lopped, grow up again quickly, but if men are destroyed, it is not easy to get them again.
Pericles (490 BC - 429 BC)

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

History Trivia

On July 6 1483 King Richard III of England was crowned. In 1535 Sir Thomas More was executed in England for treason (reign of Henry VIII) and in 1699 Captain William Kidd, the pirate, was captured in Boston, Massachusetts and deported back to England.

Monday, July 5, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Pethro
Mysteries will become known to you. You should be able to see your life's path clearly at this time. Pethro is often thought of as "Gambler's Rune." You are in a lucky period right now. Chance is your ally. Take advantage of it.

Sunday, July 4, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Faith is not sure, if you cannot turn love to quarrel; may my enemies obtain a mild mistress.

Let each man pass his days in that wherein his skill is greatest.

Let no one be willing to speak ill of the absent.

Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

Afflicted by love's madness all are blind.

Propertius Sextus (c. 50–16 B.C.), Roman elegist.

Saturday, July 3, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Now as of old the gods give men all good things, excepting only those that are baneful and injurious and useless. These, now as of old, are not gifts of the gods: men stumble into them themselves because of their own blindness and folly.

The wrongdoer is more unfortunate than the man wronged.

Democritus 460 BC ~ 370 BC

Friday, July 2, 2010

History Trivia

On July 2 1298 an army under Albert of Austria defeated and killed Adolf of Nassua near Worms, Germany. In 1566 French astrologer, physician and prophet Nostradamus died. In 1625 the Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege and in 1644 Lord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England.

Thursday, July 1, 2010

History Trivia

On July 1 0096 Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions. In 1543 England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich. In 1596 An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain. In 1690 The French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands and in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt.

Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Gone with the Wind

On June 30 1936 Gone with the Wind was published which caused a sensation in Atlanta and sold millions of copies in the United States and throughout the world. While the book drew some criticism for its romanticized view of the Old South and its slaveholding elite, its epic tale of war, passion and loss captivated readers. By the time Mitchell won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937, a movie project was already in the works. The film was produced by Hollywood giant David O. Selznick, who paid Mitchell a record-high $50,000 for the film rights to her book. Gone with the Wind became one of the highest-grossing and most acclaimed movies of all time, breaking box office records and winning nine Academy Awards out of 13 nominations.

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Ancient Quotes

By desiring little, a poor man makes himself rich.

Do not trust all men, but trust men of worth; the former course is silly, the latter a mark of prudence.

Happiness resides not in possessions, and not in gold, happiness dwells in the soul.

Hope of ill gain is the beginning of loss.

If thou suffer injustice, console thyself; the true unhappiness is in doing it.

Democritus 460 BC ~ 370 BC

Monday, June 28, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Conceal a flaw, and the world will imagine the worst.
Marcus Valerius Martialis (40 - 103)

Sunday, June 27, 2010

History Trivia

On June 27 0363 the death of Roman Emperor Julian brought an end to the Pagan Revival. In 1693 "The Ladies' Mercury" was published by John Dunton in London. It was the first women's magazine and contained a "question and answer" column that became known as a "problem page." In 1743 King George II of England defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria, in the War of the Austrian Succession and in 1787 Edward Gibbon completed "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It was published the following May.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

History Trivia

On June 26 1096 Peter the Hermit's crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary. In 1243 The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols. 1483 Richard III usurped himself to the English throne and in 1541Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers.

Friday, June 25, 2010

History Trivia

On June 25 0841 Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay. In 1080,at Brixen, a council of bishops declared Pope Gregory to be deposed and Archbishop Guibert as antipope Clement III and in 1580 the Book of Concord was first published. The book is a collection of doctrinal standards of the Lutheran Church.

Thursday, June 24, 2010

History Trivia

On June 24 1314 Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce won over Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn in Scotland. In 1340 The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast. In1497 Italian explorer John Cabot, sailing in the service of England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland and in 1509 Henry VIII was crowned King of England.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Familiarity breeds contempt, while rarity wins admiration.
Apuleius (124 - 170)

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Ancient Quotes

It is better wither to be silent, or to say things of more value than silence.

Sooner throw a pearl at hazard than an idle or useless word; and do not say a little in many words, but a great deal in a few.

Pythagoras (582 BC - 507 BC)

Monday, June 21, 2010

Rune Cast

Your Rune For Today Wunjo
Wunjo denotes joy and shared bliss. It may also represent a job well done and the satisfaction one feels from completing such a task. Wunjo brings good fortune and harmony.

Sunday, June 20, 2010

History Trivia

On June 20 0451 Roman and Barbarian warriors brought Attila's army to a halt at the Catalaunian Plains in eastern France and in 1397 The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch.

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Ancient Quotes

A man is his own easiest dupe, for what he wishes to be true he generally believes to be true.

The readiest and surest way to get rid of censure, is to correct ourselves.

To remind a man of the good turns you have done him is very much like a reproach.

What we have in us of the image of God is the love of truth and justice.

Demosthenes (384 BC - 322 BC)

Friday, June 18, 2010

Ancient Quotes

He who confers a favor should at once forget it, if he is not to show a sordid ungenerous spirit.

To remind a man of a kindness conferred and to talk of it, is little different from reproach.

Beware lest in your anxiety to avoid war you obtain a master.

Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises.

Nothing is easier than self-deceit. For what each man wishes, that he also believes to be true.

Demosthenes (384 BC - 322 BC)

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Justice is simply the advantage of the stronger.
"Just” or “right” means nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger.
Thrasymachus 5th century B.C., Greek philosopher.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

History Trivia

On June 16 0455 Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. In 1487 The War of the Roses ended with the Battle of Stoke and in 1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Magna Carta


June 15 1215 : Magna Carta sealed

Following a revolt by the English nobility against his rule, King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta, or "Great Charter." The document, essentially a peace treaty between John and his barons, guaranteed that the king would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church, and maintain the nation's laws. Although more a reactionary than a progressive document in its day, the Magna Carta was seen as a cornerstone in the development of democratic England by later generations.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Omaha Area Fans - time sensitive

Attention Omaha area fans: Your favorite author is featured in the June 14 edition of the Omaha Herald - Midlands section page 4 b :-) The article discusses my Soldiers Angels involvement and "The Briton and the Dane".

Ancient Quotes

Know thyself.
The past is certain, the future obscure.
A multitude of words is no proof of a prudent mind.
Thales (640 AD - 546 AD)

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today: Dagaz
Dagaz represents the fresh light of a new day. You are close to making a breakthrough. You have the will to change whatever you deem necessary. You may see the world with absolute clarity at this time.

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Ancient Quotes

To add insult to injury.
The mind ought sometimes to be diverted that it may return the better to thinking.
The humble suffer when the mighty disagree.
There is danger in both belief and unbelief.
Men in however high a station ought to fear the humble.
Aggression unchallenged is aggression unleashed.
It is destruction to the weak man to attempt to imitate the powerful.
Phaedrus (15 BC - 50 AD)

Friday, June 11, 2010

History Trivia

On June 11 1346, Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany. In 1488 James III of Scotland was murdered after his defeat at the Battle of Sauchieburn, Stirling. He was succeeded by his son James IV and in 1509 King Henry VIII married his first of six wives, Catherine of Aragon.

Thursday, June 10, 2010

Rune Cast

Rune For Today is Kenaz
Kenaz foretells the coming of clarity and knowledge. It is time for you to grow by exchanging knowledge with others. Opportunities are upon you.

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

History Trivia

In 68 A.D. Roman Emperor Nero committed suicide. Also on June 9 1064 Coimbra, Portugal fell to Ferdinand, the King of Castile and in 1534 Jacques Cartier became the first to sail into the river he named Saint Lawrence.

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

History Trivia

On June 8, 0452 Italy was invaded by Attila the Hun. In 0632 the prophet Mohammed died and in 0793 the Vikings raided the Northumbrian coast of England.

Monday, June 7, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Those who know how to win are much more numerous than those who know how to make proper use of their victories.

There is no witness so dreadful, no accuser so terrible as the conscience that dwells in the heart of every man.

Polybius (205 BC - 118 BC)

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Words of Wisdom from Alfred the Great

"You know of course that no one can make known any skill, nor direct and guide any authority, without tools and resources; a man cannot work on any enterprise without resources. In the case of the king, the resources and tools with which to rule are that he have his land fully manned: he must have praying men, fighting men and working men. You also know that without these tools no king may make his ability known. "

Alfred the Great

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Alfred the Great

"Desire for and possession of earthly power never pleased me overmuch, and I did not unduly desire this earthly rule, but that nevertheless I wished for tools and resources for the task that I was commanded to accomplish, which was that I should virtuously and worthily guide and direct the authority which was entrusted to me."
Alfred the Great

Friday, June 4, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Not even the gods fight against necessity.
Simonides (556 BC - 468 BC), from Plato, Dialogues, Protagoras

Man is the measure of all things.
There are two sides to every question.
Protagoras (485 BC - 421 BC)

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Webpage alert

Check out the latest update which includes information about the upcoming sequel, "The Briton and the Dane: Birthright." Thanks to my extremely talented and creative illustrator, Steven Novak, for designing the cover I envisioned. KUDOS Steven for another great masterpiece.

http://www.maryannbernal.com

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Rune Cast

Your Rune For Today Wunjo
Wunjo denotes joy and shared bliss. It may also represent a job well done and the satisfaction one feels from completing such a task. Wunjo brings good fortune and harmony.

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

History Trivia

On June 1, 0193, the Roman Emperor, Marcus Didius, was murdered in his palace and in
1533 Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII’s new queen, was crowned.

Monday, May 31, 2010

Big Ben Trivia

On May 31, 1859 the famous tower clock known as Big Ben, located at the top of the 320-foot-high St. Stephen's Tower, rang out over the Houses of Parliament in Westminster, London, for the first time. Weighing in at more than 13 tons, its massive bell was dragged to the tower through the streets of London by a team of 16 horses, to the cheers of onlookers. Two months later, however, the heavy striker designed by Edmund Beckett Denison, a formidable barrister known for his expertise in horology, or the science of measuring time, cracked the bell. Three more years passed before a lighter hammer was added and the clock went into service again.

Sunday, May 30, 2010

Alfred the Great Quote

Asser, Alfred the Great's biographer, cited this saying when he described King Alfred's method of learning: "The just man builds on a modest foundation and gradually proceeds to greater things." It is thought to be an Alfred quote which does express Alfred's practical approach to the development of his kingdom.

Saturday, May 29, 2010

Ancient Quotes

Be a craftsman in speech that thou mayest be strong, for the strength of one is the tongue, and speech is mightier than all fighting.
~ Maxims of Ptahhotep, 3400 B.C.
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