August 9,48 BC – Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus (Greece) – Julius Caesar decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey fled to Egypt where he was later murdered. As a result Caesar had absolute control of Rome. 378 Gothic War: Battle of Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens was defeated by the Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens was killed along with over half of his army. 681 Bulgaria was founded as a Khanate on the south bank of the Danube after defeating the Byzantine armies of Emperor Constantine IV south of the Danube delta. 1173 Construction of the campanile of the cathedral of Pisa (Leaning Tower of Pisa) begun; it would take two centuries to complete. 1483 Opening of the Sistine Chapel in Rome with the celebration of a Mass.