On July 25
44 Saint James, the brother of John and the son of Zebedee, and one of the 12 apostles, became the first of the apostles to be martyred when he was killed on orders of Herod Agrippa I.
285 Diocletian appointed Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler.
306 Constantine I was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.
326 Emperor Constantine refused to carry out traditional pagan sacrifices.
864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald ordered defensive measures against the Vikings.
1215 Frederick II, called Stupor Munci (The Amazement of the World), was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle.
1261 The city of Constantinople was recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.
1394: King James I of Scotland was born. He became heir to the throne upon the murder of his brother Robert. He himself would be assassinated in 1437.
1603 James VI of Scotland was crowned as king of England (James I of England), uniting the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into personal union. Political union would occur in 1707.