1303 Pope Boniface VIII died. He instituted the first Jubilee (special year of remission of sins and universal pardon).
1521 Pope Leo X granted Henry VIII the title Defender of the Faith for a tract defending Catholicism.
1542 Thomas Wyatt died. The English lyrical poet is credited with introducing the sonnet into English.
1551 John Dudley, Earl of Warwick was made the Duke of Northumberland.
1537 Lady Jane Grey, Britain's nine day queen, was born, the exact date is not known.
Interesting 20th Century fact: 1982 Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose was raised to the surface after 437 years at the bottom of the Solent. After a long and successful career, the Mary Rose sank on July 19, 1545 off Portsmouth, during an engagement with a French fleet which had attacked the English coast. The reason for the sinking is still a mystery, although many theories exist. Human error and indiscipline amongst the crew are possible explanations. Almost all of the men on board drowned.