On October 3
52 BC Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrendered to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.
42 BC First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Marc Antony and Octavian fought a decisive battle with Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius.
1226 Saint Francis of Assisi, the great Roman Catholic churchman and founder of the Franciscan order died at his beloved Poriuncula chapel at age 44.
1283 Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, was executed for what from that time onwards would be described as high treason against the King. King Edward I ensured that Dafydd's death was to be slow and agonizing, and also historic; he became the first prominent person in recorded history to have been hanged, drawn and quartered, preceded by a number of minor knights earlier in the thirteenth century.