69 Roman Emperor Vitellius was killed
in a street battle in Rome by soldiers of Vespasian, who succeeded Vitellius as
1135 Norman nobles recognized Stefanus van Blois (Stephen, grandson of
William the Conqueror) as English king. His reign was plagued with civil war
with his cousin, the Empress Matilda, whose son Henry II succeeded him upon his
1216 the Dominican order was formally sanctioned. Founded by St.
Dominic, the Dominican order of mendicant friars emphasized scholarship as well
as preaching. The organization received official sanction from Pope Honorius