480 BC Battle of Salamis: The Greek fleet
under Themistocles defeated the Persian fleet under Xerxes I.
106 BC Pompey the
Great, statesman and general of the Roman Empire was born. He was the chief
rival of Julius Caesar and in 61 BC Pompey celebrated his victory in the third
Mithridatic War (between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus, a Persian state off
the Black Sea) on his 45th birthday.
440 Saint Leo I, the Great, was elected
Roman Catholic pope. 1
227 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated
by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades.
Richard II of England abdicated; he was succeeded by his cousin Henry
Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Richard was initially imprisoned and later died from
1364 Battle of Auray: English forces defeated the French in
Brittany; ending the Breton War of Succession between the Houses of Blois and
1547 Miguel de Cervantes, Creator of Don Quixote, was born.
reign of Elizabeth I, Robert Dudley became earl of Leicester.