1185 Byzantine emperor Andronicus I was
tortured and executed by the Greek nobility, led by Isaac Angelus, during a war
between the Byzantines and Norman invaders of the empire.
Crusade (directed against Christian heretics in southern France) Simon de Montfort,
5th Earl of Leicester, defeated Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.
Pope Innocent VI died. With a background in civil law, Innocent took an
interest in reform and in the possibility of ending the Avignon Papacy.