49 BC Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon without disbanding his army, which signaled the start of civil war in Rome. Pompey and his supporters fled to Greece.
69 Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus was appointed by Galba to deputy Roman Emperor.
236 Pope Fabian succeeded Anterus as the twentieth pope of Rome.
1642 King Charles I & family fled London for Oxford.
1645 Archbishop William Laud was beheaded at the Tower of London because he opposed the radical forms of Puritanism and supported King Charles I during the British civil war.