106 BC Marcus
Tullius Cicero was born.
1098 Walkelin, first Norman bishop of
1431 Joan of Arc was handed over to
Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Legal proceedings began on 9 January 1431 at Rouen, the
seat of the English occupation government where Joan was found guilty of
heresy, and was burned at the stake on May 30.
1496 Leonardo da Vinci
unsuccessfully tested a flying machine.
Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther, German theologian and
Protestant reformer for heresy, in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.