258 Pope Sixtus II was beheaded during the persecution by Emperor
939 Battle at Simancas - Spain defeated the Moors. Arab witnesses
reported a spectacular eclipse of the sun that took place on the first day of
the battle, a bad omen.
1181 Supernova was observed by Chinese and Japanese
1284 The Republic of Pisa was defeated in the Battle of Meloria by
the Republic of Genoa, thus losing its naval dominance in the Mediterranean.
1806 Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicated, ending the Holy Roman