48 BC Pompey the Great was murdered on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt.
351 Battle of Mursa Major: the Roman Emperor Constantius II defeated the usurper Magnentius in one of the bloodiest battles in Roman military history.
365 Roman usurper Procopius proclaimed himself Roman emperor.
855 The Emperor Lothar died in Gaul (present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine), and his kingdom was divided between his three sons.
1066 William the Conqueror and his Norman army arrived in England, landing at Pevensey, beginning the Norman Conquest.
1322 Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeated Frederick I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf.