Thursday, April 30, 2015

History Trivia - Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, executed

April 30

313 Roman emperor Licinius unified the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.

1513  Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

1527 Henry VIII of England and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

History Trivia - French victory over English at Orleans

April 29,

1109 Hugh of Cluny died. Hugh was the driving force in bringing the monastery of Cluny to preeminence in medieval France.

1347 Catherine of Siena was born. Catherine, the patron saint of Italy, played a significant role in returning the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. She was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970.

 1429 Joan of Arc led French forces to victory over English at Orleans.

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Human bones in pot may reflect gruesome ritual conducted by army of Queen Boudicca

Ancient Origins

A 2,000-year-old cooking pot filled with cremated human bones has been found by the banks of the Walbrook river in London, in what was known in ancient times as Londinium, a thriving capital of a Roman province nearly two millennia ago.  The finding was made near an earlier discovery of dozens of human skulls, adding to the evidence that they are the remnants of a rebellion led by famous Celtic Queen Boudicca, who united a number of British tribes in revolt against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in 60-61 AD.
The cooking pot was unearthed during excavations to create a new 13 mile underground railway line through London, known as the Crossrail Project, which has already yielded thousands of artifacts and human remains, including a 9,000-year-old tool making factory, prehistoric mammoth bones, a Roman road, medieval ice skates, an 800-year-old piece of a ship, and the skeletal remains of plague victims and thousands of people that had been buried in the medieval cemetery of the infamous Bedlam psychiatric hospital.

Workers uncover the skeleton of a Londoner from centuries ago in Bedlam burial ground underneath Liverpool Street. ( photo)
The cooking pot packed full of bones was found next to an archaeological site where researchers had previously dug up 40 human skulls and 2 horse skulls (but not the rest of their bodies) that date back to the same time period.
“It had been suggested that the skulls ended up in the river – which vanished into culverts centuries ago – by accident, eroded out of a Roman cemetery and washed downstream until they came to rest at bends in the bank,” The Guardian reports. “The new finds suggest a grimmer explanation.”

Representational image: Pot filled with cremated human bones recently found in another part of England (Hampshire Archaeology)
“We now wonder again if the skulls were deliberately placed on the banks. Certainly no river ever carried off the cooking pot with its cremated bones which was unquestionably deliberately placed here,” said Jay Carver, Crossrail’s lead archaeologist. “And the horse skull we found with one of the skulls didn’t come out of some equine graveyard, that was clearly also placed there”.
Previous analysis of the skulls revealed that they bore marks of trauma from blunt force or edged weapons, indicating smashed or slashed faces, fractures of the eye and cheekbones, and blows to the back of the head.
The archaeologists suggest that, taken together, the evidence points to the skulls being the heads of executed criminals and rebels, or Romans slaughtered during Boudicca’s rebellion.
Boudicca, sometimes written Boadicea, was queen of the Iceni tribe, a Celtic clan which united a number of British tribes in revolt against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire, following the pillaging of her lands, enslavement of her people, and rape of her daughters at the hands of the Romans.

Artist’s depiction of Queen Boudicca. Image source.
Historical records suggest that Boudicca succeeded in gathering an army of up to 100,000 warriors. Her first target was Camulodunum (now modern-day Colchester), a town for discharged Roman soldiers and the site of a temple to the former Roman Emperor Claudius. The Iceni and their allies descended upon the town, and razed it to the ground.
Upon hearing the news of the revolt, the Roman Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus hurried to Londinium, the site of the latest grisly discovery. But the Romans, having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned the town. Boudicca’s warriors burned and destroyed the entire settlement, killing anyone that had not been sensible enough to leave. There were no survivors.
Boudicca’s third and final annihilation was at Verulamium (now known as St Albans), which again was razed to the ground and completely destroyed. By the end of the final attack, an estimated 70,000 – 80,000 had been killed. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain.
Boudicca believed her destruction of three key city’s would free Britain of the Roman’s, but she was sadly mistaken. The Romans regrouped and eventually defeated Boudicca and her army in a final battle in the West Midlands of England. The final result was that the Romans strengthened their military presence in Britain – they were there to stay.
Featured image: Boudicca led her people in a revolt against the Romans in Camulodunum, Londinium, and Verulamium. Image source.
By April Holloway


History Trivia - Emperor Constantius II visits Rome

April 28

32 Emperor Otho (second emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors) was born.  His reign lasted three months - January 15 - April 16, 69.

357 Emperor Constantius II, after dealing with the Franks, visited Rome before moving his army north to campaign against the Sarmatians, Suevi and the Quadi along the Danube. Constantius spent most of his reign quelling uprisings throughout the Roman Empire, succumbing to a fever in the winter of 361 at Mopsucrene (central Turkey).

442 King Edward IV of England was born. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to this throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death.

Monday, April 27, 2015

What did people wear in Ancient Egypt?

History Extra

Tomb of Nakht, Valley of the Nobles. © frans lemmens / Alamy

What did people wear in Ancient Egypt?

If we look at the scenes on the walls of Egypt’s elite tombs, we see the tomb owner and his family wearing gleaming white garments. Men wear either kilts or full-length robes with sleeves; women often wear dresses so tight it would have been very difficult to walk.
Both men and women are seen wearing sandals, jewellery, cosmetics and wigs. Children are often shown naked, with a distinctive ponytail or ‘sidelock’ on an otherwise shaved head.
Archaeology paints a slightly different picture, however. The garments recovered from Tutankhamun’s tomb show that rich Egyptians enjoyed colourful clothing, decorated with embroidery, appliqué and beading. Garments recovered from less prestigious burials suggest many people wore the equivalent of the djellaba [a traditional long, loose-fitting unisex outer robe with full sleeves] worn in Egypt today.
Clothing was made from linen and, as fabric was extremely valuable, garments were mended, patched and handed on from wearer to wearer. Sandals were made from leather or reeds, while loincloths might be made of leather.
Dr Joyce Tyldesley is a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester, where she writes and teaches a number of Egyptology courses.

History Trivia - David I becomes King of Scots

April 27,

1124 David I became King of Scots.

1296 Battle of Dunbar: The Scots were defeated by Edward I of England. This battle was the only significant field action in the campaign of 1296 when King Edward I of England had invaded Scotland to punish King John Balliol for his refusal to support English military action in France.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Some fun facts about Guardians of Cridhe blogger Fiona Mcvie

Fiona Mcvie interviews authors on her Ladies of the Guardians of Cridhe blog, which is how we met (click on the link to read  my interview).
Fiona was kind enough to share some interesting bet you didn't know stuff about her life.  She is a 51-year-old mother and grandmother who loves to read and bake. 
Now, down to the good stuff:
Fiona was born in Germany since her dad was in the British Army, so she moved about a lot.
Lives in Scotland UK.
Is part Irish as her ancestors came to Scotland from Ireland in 1707.
Writes poems for fun.

Loves long walks with her dog called Fly; he is 19-years-old.
Reads between 5 and 10 books a month.
Mum to two daughters, two sons and a granny to four.
Has interviewed over 2000 authors on her blog.
To find out more about Fiona, kindly visit:


Discovery of Pictish Fort Reveals Iron Age Look-Out post for Sea Raiders

Ancient Origins

In the fifth or sixth century AD, Picts on the eastern Scotland coast set up a fort on a stone outcrop just offshore, possibly to hold sway over the seas. The ancient people had a reputation for ferocity and were one reason the Romans never established a lasting presence in what is now Scotland.
The fort on what is called a “sea stack” may have been one of a series of forts along the coast, archaeologist Gordon Noble of Aberdeen University told the Press and Journal. This particular fort, near Stonehaven, may have been a precursor to medieval Dunnottar Castle, just a few hundred meters (yards) away, on a headland onshore.
Dunnottar Castle, Scotland (Wikimedia Commons)
Excavations by Professor Noble and his team showed the fort was inhabited for extended periods, so it may have been an important place to the Picts.
“The Picts were known as sea raiders and forts like this may have helped cement that naval power. It is quite an impressive site. It was pretty hairy climb to get up there and at high tide it is completely cut off. Resupplying the fort when it was inhabited would have been a challenge,” Professor Noble told the Daily Mail.
The Romans called Picts “Pictii” because they painted themselves blue when going into battle. No one knows what the Picts called themselves. They lived in east and north Scotland during the late Iron Age and early in the medieval era. They overran Roman positions several times by 200 AD and kept the Romans at bay in Scotland north of the Clyde and Forth.

A Pict looking out to sea as depicted in a 19th century book (Wikimedia Commons)
“The Roman name ‘Pictii’ means “painted ones,” and the Romans believed the Picts were little more than naked savages. However, it is now thought that this is an exaggeration. Given Scotland’s climate, it is unlikely that the Picts spent a lot of their time undressed. It is believed that they wore clothes colored with natural dyes and used leather for footwear and jackets. The Picts were also thought to be excellent farmers, growing crops and keeping animals for food and clothing. Certainly, horses were important to the Picts as they are depicted on many of their carved stones,” says an article at the BBC website.

“The Painted Ones”: Hand-colored version of Theodor de Bry’s engraving of a Pict woman (Wikimedia Commons)
Picts didn’t have writing, so what we know of them comes from ancient Greek and Roman texts and archaeological digs like the one at Dunnicaer sea stack.
The fort on the sea stack at Dunnicaer became known after youngsters climbed it and found rocks with markings on them. They threw some of the rocks into the sea, but one boy went back and retrieved one from the water, the Daily Mail says.

Stone with Pictish carving found at Dunnicaer hill fort (
It’s possible the Picts built a wooden bridge to the sea stack to give regular access, Noble said. The stones of the fort were not local, so it seems likely they had some way to transport them to the sea stack, whether by a wooden bridge or by lifting them with ropes.
The team from the University of Aberdeen’s Northern Pict Project excavated what may have been a house and a hearth with some charcoal intact at the site. The house was inside the fort.
Noble speculated that there was a community living on the shore near the sea stack, but he said because Picts built their homes from wood it is not possible to find remains of their dwellings.
A professional rock climber scaled the sea stack and put ropes in place for Professor Gordon and his team, who did a five-day excavation at the site.
Featured image: View over Dunnicaer Promontory Fort from the neighboring clifftops. Credit: Les Hamilton.



Rare Bronze Owl Brooch Found on Danish Island

Discovery News

Archaeologists excavating an Iron Age settlement on the Baltic island of Bornholm in Denmark have unearthed a unique enameled bronze clasp.
Cast as a flat piece of bronze and decorated with green enamel and glass disks in brilliant red, yellow, and black colors, the brooch is shaped like an owl and dates between 100-250 A.D.
“The bird’s big black glass pupils seem to stare directly back at you,” Ulla Lund Hansen, a leading scholar in the field of Roman Iron Age research, and Christina Seehusen, archaeologist at Bornholm Museum, wrote in the Danish archaeology magazine Skalk.
Viking Jewelry Unearthed in Denmark
“Its large, luminous eyes are made even more dramatic by the stunning inlays of orange glass around the pupils,” she added.
The rare brooch, which measures just 1.5 by 1.5 inches, would have been used to fasten a man’s cloak. It was found in the Roman-age soil deposits of an ancient house in September 2014, but only now the find was made public.
“It is very uncommon to find such items in a settlement context in Denmark. We usually find these things only in burials,” Seehusen told Discovery News.
“The settlement was unusual in itself, as it was extremely well preserved compared to typical standards,” she said.
Indeed, on the settlement site Seehusen’s team found very well preserved remains of workshops, pottery, traces of houses and other buildings.
Photos: Iron Age Fashion
“We found Roman coins representing Faustina the Younger [the Empress consort to Marcus Aurelius (161-175 AD)] a bronze spur, several dress pins, bronze and iron brooches, glass beads, iron smelting cinders and plenty of animal bones from pig, cattle, horse, bird, fish and dog,” Seehusen said.
The brooch, or fibula, was probably made along the Roman frontier that ran along the Danube and the Rhine in what is now Germany.
How it ended up on Bornholm, an island in the middle of the Baltic Sea, remains a mystery.
“We can only guess who the original owner was and how it came to be preserved on the island,” Seehusen said.
The unusual piece represents a personal item, which is very rarely found outside the borders of the Roman Empire. It was possibly owned by a person who served as a mercenary in the Roman army in the northern provinces.
With its unusal shape and bright colors, it probably provided its owner with a great level of prestige.
“Perhaps it was lost or maybe it was deliberately hidden for reasons known only to its owner. Most likely, we will never know the brooch’s full story,” Seehusen said.
Video: What Ancient Wine Tasted Like
Flat brooches made in various designs were popular between the 1st and 4th century A.D. Their shapes reminded common objects such as axes, spears, wheels, shoes, mythical creatures such as sea serpents and animals including horses, dogs, bees, deers, boars, lions and various types of fish and birds.
Owls were a symbol of wisdom, portrayed as companions to both Athena, the Greek Goddess of war, and Minerva, the Roman goddess of wisdom, art, trade, and war. The owl was one of the rarest types of animals depicted on brooches.
“It is possible that Germanic mercenaries in the Roman territories somehow adopted Roman traditions of symbolic jewellery,” Seehusen said.
The majority of such clasps was found in frontier forts in what is now Germany, but small numbers were also found in various European countries.
“They are nonetheless extremely rare in Northern Europe,” Seehusen said.
The brooch has been now restored and is currently on display at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen.

History Trivia - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appears in Genazzano, Italy

April 26

121 Marcus Aurelius (Roman Emperor 161-180) was born. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.

1467 The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appeared in Genazzano, Italy.

 1514 Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn.

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Discovery of Reindeer Antlers in Denmark may Rewrite Start of Viking Age

Ancient Origins

A team of scholars says their new research is rewriting when and where the Viking age began. The official date for the start of Viking voyages was a 793 AD raid in England. But researchers say people from Norway sailed to Ribe, Denmark, on peaceful missions much earlier—around 725 AD.
Archaeologists from the University of Aarhus in Denmark and the University of York in the United Kingdom found the useful commodity of Norwegian reindeer antlers buried in the earliest archaeological layer of Ribe’s old market. Ribe was the first commercial city in Denmark.
This caribou with its magnificent rack in Alaska is the same species called reindeer in Scandinavia.
This caribou with its magnificent rack in Alaska is the same species called reindeer in Scandinavia. (Photo by Dean Biggins/Wikimedia Commons)
The sailing trips from Norway to Denmark helped the sailors establish the technology and skills necessary to do the later military raids and long-distance voyaging the Vikings did, they say.
“Ultimately, the researchers agree that the discussion of when the Viking era began is also one of semantics,” says an article in ScienceNordic. “It all depends on what you mean by Vikings. Morten Søvsø from Southwest Jutland Museums suggests that we should be careful with the labels we give to people who lived in the past. ‘They didn’t go around knowing they were Vikings. If you want to argue that the Viking age in fact started when they had contact with the wider world, then this study supports this view—but it will always be a rationalisation,’ says Søvsø.”
Another researcher, James Barrett of Cambridge University in England, told ScienceNordic he’s not convinced the people who sailed to Ribe in the early eighth century were Vikings, though he says it’s valuable research.
“Where we do not necessarily agree entirely is in the perception of whether towns and trade also helped to start the Viking age," says Barrett, a specialist in medieval archaeology.
Ribe is Denmark’s oldest commercial center. It looks much different in this photo than it did when Norwegians came around 725 AD to trade reindeer antlers.
Ribe is Denmark’s oldest commercial center. It looks much different in this photo than it did when Norwegians came around 725 AD to trade reindeer antlers. (Photo by Wolfgang Sauber/Wikimedia Commons)
There is a related debate among Nordic archaeologists—whether Ribe was central to Viking society early in Viking history. The article in ScienceNordic says it seemed an early link between the oldest commercial center in Denmark and the Vikings would be obvious, but archaeologists had no physical evidence to confirm it.
"This is the first time we have proof that seafaring culture, which was the basis for the Viking era, has a history in Ribe. It's fascinating," said Søren Sindbæk, one of the authors of the new study published in the European Journal of Archaeology.
The trips across the Skaggerak Strait or down the North Sea to trade antlers in Denmark may have prepared the Vikings for longer voyages.
‘Ingolf tager Island i besiddelse’ by P. Raadsig, 1850, depicting Ingólfr Arnarson, the first settler of Iceland, newly arrived in Reykjavík.
‘Ingolf tager Island i besiddelse’ by P. Raadsig, 1850, depicting Ingólfr Arnarson, the first settler of Iceland, newly arrived in Reykjavík. (Wikimedia Commons)
"The Viking Age becomes a phenomenon in Western Europe because the Vikings learned to use maritime mobility to their advantage,” Sindbæk said. “They learned to master sailing to such an extent that they get to the coast of England where the locals don't expect anything. They come quickly, plunder the unprepared victims, and leave again—a sort of hit and run."
Model of a Viking age trade ship in the Ribe Viking Museum
Model of a Viking age trade ship in the Ribe Viking Museum (Wolfgang Sauber/Wikimedia Commons)
The Vikings went on to do raids and set up colonies elsewhere in Europe and as far east as Russia. They went on voyages of thousands of kilometers to Iceland, Greenland and Canada.
"We can now show that the famous Scandinavian sea voyages, which eventually led to the discovery of Iceland and Greenland, have a history of some commercial travel, not just raids. Previously we were inclined to say that yes, once you can sail across open water, you can also sail to the commercial towns -- now we can turn the equation around and say that trading towns may have been an important part of the drive behind developing new technologies, "says Sindbæk said. “The peaceful exchanges—trading—will take up more of the story, and the military voyages, which are also important, must now share the space.”
Deer antlers were important to Danes because they were used in making combs, needles and other tools. A householder was likely able to find enough for home use, but a comb maker may not have been able to. So some Norwegians decided to gather what was for them a waste product and take them to Denmark, where they were a valuable commodity, Sindbæk said.
Featured image: The Vikings were known as great seafarers. They were able to reach lands such as Britain through their mastery of the seas. Image source.

History Trivia - Athens surrenders to Sparta

April 25

404 BC Athens surrendered to Sparta, ending the Peloponesian War.  

799 Pope Leo III was attacked during a procession in Rome due, in part, for recognizing Charlemagne as patricius of the Romans, which upset the delicate balance between the Byzantines and the west that his predecessor had established. He fled to Charlemagne, who escorted the Pope  safely back to Rome where he oversaw a commission that vindicated Leo and deported his enemies. Leo would later crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor


Friday, April 24, 2015

History Trivia - Greeks enter Troy using the Trojan Horse

April 24

1184 BC The Greeks entered Troy using the Trojan Horse (traditional date).

709 Saint Wilfrid died. A monk of Lindisfarne Abbey and later Bishop of Hexham, Wilfrid spread the Benedictine Rule and worked to establish Roman Catholicism over the influence of the Celtic Church in England.

 1585 Pope Sixtus V elected. Sixtus was unanimously elected successor to Gregory XIII, who had left the Papal States in disarray. He defined the college of Cardinals and is considered the founder of the Counter-Reformation.

Thursday, April 23, 2015

St George’s Day: 10 things you (probably) didn’t know about him

History Extra
St George slaying the dragon. © Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library / Alamy

St George’s Day is upon us once again, and interest surrounding the festival of England’s primary patron saint shows no sign of abating. It’s common knowledge that, according to legend, St George killed a dragon, but what else do you know about him?

Here, writing for History Extra, Jonathan Good, associate professor of history at Reinhardt University in Georgia, brings you 10 lesser-known facts about England’s patron saint…

1) St George is not English

If he ever existed (and there’s no proof he did), George would likely have been a soldier somewhere in the eastern Roman Empire, probably in what is now Turkey. According to legend, he was martyred for his faith under Emperor Diocletian in the early fourth century, and his major shrine is located in Lod, Israel.

2) His earliest legends were so outlandish that the Pope condemned them

Early Christians were known to exaggerate the tortures endured by their martyrs, but St George is in a league all of his own. According to one source, St George was torn on the rack, hit on the head with hammers until his brains oozed out, forced to drink poison, torn on a wheel, boiled in lead, and much else besides – all over a period of seven years.
A fifth-century decree attributed to Pope Gelasius declared that, lest it give rise to mockery, the details were not be read out in church.

3) He was one of several military saints honoured in the Byzantine Empire

Others included Theodore, Demetrius, and Mercurius. All of these saints had been soldiers when alive, and continued their patronage of the Byzantine army in death – especially St George, who became the most popular.
Crusaders to the Holy Land in 1099 adopted this tradition of military saints, and brought the veneration of St George back to Western Europe.

4) St George is also connected to agriculture

His name means ‘earth-worker’ – that is, farmer – and his feast day of 23 April is in the spring, when crops are starting to grow. Many people throughout European history have prayed to St George for a good harvest.


5) The dragon was not always a part of St George’s story

The earliest legend that features St George rescuing a princess from a dragon dates to the 11th century. It may have started simply as a way to explain icons of military saints slaying dragons, symbolising the triumph of good over evil.
For the permanent association of St George and the dragon we have to thank the Golden Legend, a popular collection of saints’ lives written in the 13th century.

6) He is the patron saint of many places

These include countries like Ethiopia, Georgia and Portugal, and cities such as Freiburg, Moscow and Beirut. George was seen as an especially powerful intercessor, and the dragon story has a universal appeal.

7) St George was known as ‘Our Lady’s Knight’ in medieval England

As a patron of crusading, St George easily became the quintessential knight. And every knight needs to serve a lady – who better than the Blessed Virgin Mary herself?

8) Edward I is ultimately the reason why St George ‘became’ English

As a crusader, Edward I (r 1272–1307) acquired an affinity for St George, and back in England outfitted his troops with the St George’s cross when fighting the Welsh. He raised St George’s flag over Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300, among other things.
Later, Edward III, hoping to revive the glories of his grandfather’s reign, founded the Order of the Garter under the patronage of St George.

9) St George appeared to the English army at the battle of Agincourt in 1415

King Henry V (r 1413–22) was especially devoted to St George, as is reflected in Shakespeare’s play. The idea later arose that St George had actually appeared to the English during the battle of Agincourt in 1415, which was a stunning victory for them against the French.

10) The Reformation was not kind to St George

Even King Edward VI himself mocked the legend as improbable. But the poet Edmund Spenser, among others, kept George’s legend alive as a romantic and nationalistic story. And it is one that shows no signs of losing its appeal.

Jonathan Good’s The Cult of St George in Medieval England (Boydell & Brewer) was recently updated, and is now available in paperback. To find out more, click here.

New Release - Veetu Industries and Rae Gee: A Second Past Midnight - OUT TODAY!

Veetu Industries and Rae Gee: A Second Past Midnight - OUT TODAY!:   In 1981, at the height of the Cold War, a single nuclear warhead sent America's technological capability back to the 18th centur...

In 1981, at the height of the Cold War, a single nuclear warhead sent America's technological capability back to the 18th century. Four years later, the shattered country is still struggling to put itself back together. Infrastructure has crumbled, the government is gone, and convicted criminals are hunted for food.

James lives in a small, Midwestern town. By day, he tends his family's farm, trading the food they grow for other supplies. By night, he dreams of being a musician. But with his world destroyed, music remains a frivolous dream.

That is, until he meets Flame. Convicted of drug dealing, Flame has become a part of the bi-annual Shoot to Kill hunting season. He has a dark past and people want him dead. Yet he has a strong determination to live and shares James' musical dream. James and Flame join forces, traveling first to New York and then to London, in spite of the numerous obstacles in their path and the shadow of death hanging over them. Will they be strong enough to escape it and find their dreams together?  

Available from:

History Trivia - Order of the Garter founded

April 23

215 BC A temple was built on the Capitoline Hill and dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene.

1014 Battle of Clontarf Brian Boru (High King of Ireland in 1002) defeated Viking invaders, but was killed during the battle.

1348 The founding of the Order of the Garter by King Edward III was announced on St George's Day.