Saturday, December 25, 2010
January 1, 45 BC Caesar introduced the Julian calendar. Julius Caesar's calendar reform - 365 days in 12 months with leap years every four years - was introduced. 43 BC Cicero delivered his "Fifth Philippic" (fifth of a series of speeches condemning Mark Antony) in the Roman Senate. 27 BC Octavian became the first emperor of Rome, and took the name Caesar Augustus. 69 AD Roman legions in Germany refused to renew the oath of allegiance to Emperor Galba. They rebelled and proclaimed Aulus Vitellius Germanicus as emperor. 138 AD, Caesar Aelius died. 193 AD Pertinax became emperor. 193 The Senate chose Pertinax against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman Emperor. 1001 Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary was named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. 1259 Michael VIII Palaiologos was proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris. 1438 Albert II of Habsburg was crowned King of Hungary. 1515 King Francis I of France succeeded to the French throne. 1527 Croatian nobles elected Ferdinand I of Austria as king of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin. 1600 Scotland began its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25. 1651 Charles II was crowned King of Scotland.