Sunday, September 30, 2012

History Trivia

On September 30 

 420 Saint Jerome, one of the great scholars of the early Christian church, died at age 80. 
579 Pope Benedict I died . 
1227 Pope Nicholas IV, the first Franciscan pontiff, was born.
1399 Richard II of England was deposed; Henry of Lancaster declared himself king as Henry IV.
1544 Henry VIII withdrew his armies out of France. 1555 Oxford Bishop Nicholas Ridley was sentenced to death as a heretic.

Saturday, September 29, 2012

History Trivia

On September 29

480 BC Battle of Salamis: The Greek fleet under Themistocles defeated the Persian fleet under Xerxes I.

106 BC Pompey the Great, statesman and general of the Roman Empire was born. He was the chief rival of Julius Caesar and in 61 BC Pompey celebrated his victory in the third Mithridatic War (between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus, a Persian state off the Black Sea) on his 45th birthday.

440 Saint Leo I, the Great, was elected Roman Catholic pope.

1227 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades.

1399 King Richard II of England abdicated; he was succeeded by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Richard was initially imprisoned and later died from uncertain causes.

1364 Battle of Auray: English forces defeated the French in Brittany; ending the Breton War of Succession between the Houses of Blois and Montfort.

1547 Miguel de Cervantes, Creator of Don Quixote, was born.

1564, the reign of Elizabeth I, Robert Dudley became earl of Leicester.

Friday, September 28, 2012

History Trivia

On September 28

48 BC Pompey the Great was murdered on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt.

351 Battle of Mursa Major: the Roman Emperor Constantius II defeated the usurper Magnentius in one of the bloodiest battles in Roman military history.

365 Roman usurper Procopius proclaimed himself Roman emperor.

855 The Emperor Lothar died in Gaul (present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine), and his kingdom was divided between his three sons.

1066 William the Conqueror and his Norman army arrived in England, landing at Pevensey, beginning the Norman Conquest.

1106 The Battle of Tinchebrai: Henry I of England defeated his brother, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. Henry's knights won a decisive victory, capturing Robert and imprisoning him in England and then Wales until Robert's death in Cardiff Castle. England and Normandy remained under a single ruler until 1204.

1322 Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeated Frederick I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf.


BEARDED SCRUTINY: REVIEW - THE CABIN IN THE WOODS: Bringing something “new” to the horror genre is pretty tough these days. Everything’s been done and most of that stuff ...

Thursday, September 27, 2012

History Trivia

On September 27

489 Odoacer (first Germanic king of Italy) attacked Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths  at the Battle of Verona, and was defeated again.
1009 Caliph al Hakim ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, a Christian holy site.
1066 William the Conqueror, with a Norman army of 5,000 men, set sail from France for England, to claim the English throne.
1509 Storm ravages the Flemish/Dutch/Friese coast, killing thousands.   
1540 Pope Paul III approved the first outline of the organization of the Jesuit Society, drafted by St. Ignatius of Loyola, the order's founder.
1590 Pope Urban VII died 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Bill Jones Jr

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Bill Jones Jr: Bill Jones Jr One of the great perks of being an Indie Wizard is the pleasure of both meeting new people and people you admire from af...

History Trivia

On September 26

46 BC Julius Caesar dedicated a temple to his mythical ancestor Venus Genetrix in accordance with a vow he made at the battle of Pharsalus.

715 Ragenfrid defeated Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne, the first definite battle of the civil war which followed the death of Pepin of Heristal, Duke of the Franks.

1181 St. Francis of Assisi, Italian Founder of the Franciscan Order, was born.

1143 Celestine II became Pope. He was a friend of Peter Abelard (French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician), Celestine was a scholar whose pontificate only lasted six months.

1687 The Parthenon in Athens, unscathed since 432 BC, was severely damaged by a gunpowder explosion, caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by Morosini (Doge of Venice) who besieged the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens.

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Carla by Mark Barry

A mental patient (Jonathan Dexter), with an ongoing history of violence and suffering an extreme form of Borderline Personality Disorder, is discharged into the community after three years in a private asylum. In a ...
prosperous English town, he meets and falls in love with Carla, a beautiful, naive young wildlife conservation student working behind the bar of an old tavern.

The two develop a relationship - a good one, a warm one, one with a future, until things start to go badly wrong.

A dark, brooding romance novel based loosely in the Minster town of Southwell in Nottinghamshire, readers interested in crime, psychology, mental health, personality disorders and the ongoing relationship between men and women will enjoy this book.

Carla is written from the perspective of the mental patient, in the style of fifties legend Jim Thompson (to whom this is a homage), and as such, it offers a hard core, unflinching, unyielding, no holds barred innerscape of someone suffering serious mental health problems including Borderline Personality Disorder. (US Link) (UK Link)

History Trivia

On September 25

275 The Roman Senate proclaimed Marcus Claudius Tacitus Emperor after the assassination of Aurelian. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus.
396 Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeated a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis, often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis and was the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages.
1066 Harold II (Harold Godwinson) of England defeated an invasion by Harald Hardrada of Norway, at Stamford Bridge near York, and marked the end of the Viking invasions of England. It also delayed Harold's arrival at Hastings, becoming a significant factor in the outcome of the Norman Conquest.

Monday, September 24, 2012

History Trivia

On September 24

15 Aulus Vitellius was born. Vitellius was acclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession; the latter name had fallen into disrepute in many quarters because of the actions of Nero.

768 Pepin the Short, King of the Franks and father of Charlemagne, died at age 54. 

1645 Battle of Rowton Heath, Parliamentarian victory over a Royalist army commanded by King Charles I; casualties estimated at 600 dead and 900 injured.

Sunday, September 23, 2012

The Wizard's Cauldron: Upward Curve

The Wizard's Cauldron: Upward Curve: Hi all. News desk. I'm going to resume interviews this week. No excuses - just been incredibly busy with The Illustrated Woman.  That sh...

History Trivia

On September 23

480 BC The Greeks defeated the Persians in the greatest of ancient naval battles, at Salamis, avenging the destruction of Athens. Over 1,000 Persian ships were sunk by fewer than 400 Greek vessels.

 63 BC Augustus (Octavian) was born. He was the Roman emperor at the time of Christ, and the founder in 27 BC of the Roman Empire as it was known after the end of the Roman Republic of Julius Caesar's time.

1122 Concordat of Worms brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperors.

1459 Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, was fought at Blore Heath in Staffordshire. The Yorkists, though inferior in numbers, were completely victorious.


Choose Or Die: ECOPOCALYPSE CH.5 - SHIT STORM: ECOPOCALYPSE CH.5 - SHIT STORM  By Annie Evett You grab Madge’s hand, realising that she was always the strong on...

Saturday, September 22, 2012

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: A Summer of Indie Curtain Call!

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: A Summer of Indie Curtain Call!: I’m Robert Stanek and I’m your host here at Go Indie - Read Indies. You know you're in the right place in life when you wake up every day ...

History Trivia

On September 22

 66 Emperor Nero created the Legion I Italica. 530 Both Boniface II and Dioscorus (antipope) were consecrated. The short-lived schism ended with Dioscorus' death on October 14, 530.

1499 Switzerland became an independent state.

1515 Anne of Cleves was born. The fourth wife of Henry VIII, Anne was able to obtain a divorce and maintained a friendly relationship with the Tudor family.

1586 Battle of Zutphen was a confrontation of the Eighty Years' War fought between forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish, who sought to regain the northern Netherlands. Elizabeth I sent troops under the earl of Leicester to aid the rebels, however the Spanish were victorious.

Friday, September 21, 2012

History Trivia

On September 21
490 BC The Greeks under Miltiades decisively defeated the army of Darius I of Persia at the Battle of Marathon.
19 BC Virgil, the great Roman poet, died in Rome at age 50.
454  Falvius Actius, Roman general and statesman was born.
1192 Richard I the Lion hearted was captured near Vienna by Leopold V, Duke of Austria who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat.
1327 Edward II of England was murdered by order of his wife Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV of France.
1435 An agreement between Charles VII of France and Philip the Good ended the partnership between the English and Burgundy in the Hundred Years' War.
1745 A Jacobite army under 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' defeated government forces at the Battle of Prestonpans.


Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie with Robert Stanek

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie with Robert Stanek: I’m Robert Stanek and I’m your host here at Go Indie - Read Indies. I’ve been writing professionally for many years and will celebrate the...

Thursday, September 20, 2012

The Wizard's Cauldron: PINS by Jessica McHugh

The Wizard's Cauldron: PINS by Jessica McHugh: I interviewed Jess McHugh really early on in the life of the Cauldron, at a time when I had yet to reach 500 views in total.  Jess di...

History Trivia

On September 20

 451 The Battle of Châlons took place in North Eastern France. Flavius Aetius's victory over Attila the Hun in a day of combat is considered to be the largest battle in the ancient world.

1066 The Battle of Fulford: King Harald III of Norway (Harald Hardrada) and Tostig Gowinson, his English allay, defeated Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria.

1187 Saladin began the Siege of Jerusalem. This act of aggression provoked the Third Crusade.

1378 Cardinal Robert of Geneva, called by some the Butcher of Cesena, was elected as Avignon Pope Clement VII, beginning the Papal schism.

1633 Galileo Galilei was tried before the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for teaching that the Earth orbits the Sun and was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Talks With Donna Burgess

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Talks With Donna Burgess: Readers who enjoy post-apocalyptical or zombie-survival stories will want to check out Solstice, by Donna Burgess. Solstice is a tale o...

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

History Trivia

On September 19

335 Dalmatius was raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I.

912 Emperor Leo VI was born. Known as the Wise or the Philosopher, Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium issued imperial laws in Greek that became the legal code of the Empire.

1356 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Poitiers: an English army under the command of Edward, the Black Prince defeated a French army and captured the French king, John II.

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Hangs With C.J. Urban

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Hangs With C.J. Urban: If you're looking for a mystery or thriller with a romantic twist, be sure to check out Diary of a Dead Girl , by author C.J. Urban. The...

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

History Trivia

On September 18

53 Roman Emperor Trajan was born.

96 Marcus Nerva was proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian was assassinated.

                                                                     Marcus Nerva

324 Constantine the Great decisively defeated Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire.

1180 Philip Augustus became king of France. Philip was one of the most successful medieval French monarchs in expanding the royal demesne and the influence of the monarchy. He broke up the great Angevin Empire (an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty during the 12th and early 13th centuries) and defeated a coalition of his rivals (German, Flemish and English) at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214.

Monday, September 17, 2012

History Trivia

On September 17

530 Boniface II was selected Pope. He was by birth an Ostrogoth, the first Germanic pope, and he owed his appointment to the influence of the Gothic king Athalaric. Boniface was chosen by his predecessor, Pope Felix IV, who had been a strong adherent of the Arian king, and was never elected. Boniface had for some time an antipope, Dioscurus, who had been elected by most of the priests of Rome. Boniface and Dioscorus were both consecrated in Rome on 22 September 530, but Dioscurus died twenty-two days later. 

642 Arabs conquered Alexandria, destroying the library.  

1745 Jacobite leader Bonnie Prince Charlie entered Edinburgh, proclaiming his father James VIII of Scotland.

Sunday, September 16, 2012

History Trivia

  On September 16
335 BC Alexander the Great destroyed every building in Thebes, Egypt, except the temples and the house of the poet Pindar.
1386 St. Ambrose of Camaldoli was born. Ambrose helped bring about a brief reunion of the Eastern and Western churches.
1387 King Henry V of England was born.
1400 Owain Glyndwr proclaimed himself Prince of Wales, launching the last Welsh rebellion against the English.
1494 Francisco Maurolico was born. He was a Benedictine monk, historian, and mathematician, Maurolico wrote a history of Sicily and significant works on Greek mathematics.


Saturday, September 15, 2012

History Trivia

On September 15
509 BC The temple of Jupiter on Rome's Capitoline Hill was dedicated on the ides of September.
53 Trajan, Emperor of Rome 98-117, was born.
668 Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II was assassinated in his bath at Syracuse, Italy. Constans was the last emperor to become consul in 642, becoming the last Roman consul in history.
1159 Alexander III was crowned Roman Catholic pope. He is noted for laying the foundation stone for the Notre Dame de Paris.
1514 Thomas Wolsey was appointed archbishop of York, the second most important seat in England. His failure to obtain an annulment of Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon led to his downfall. He built Hampton Court Palace, which Henry VIII coveted and acquired, and was one of Henry's favorite residences.

The Briton and the Dane: Legacy - free Kindle edition 9/15-16-2012

The Briton and the Dane:  Legacy Kindle edition is free this weekend, Sept 15-16, 2012



Friday, September 14, 2012

History Trivia

On September 14
81 Domitian became Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus.

891 Pope Steven V died. The pontificate of Stephen witnessed the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire.

1523 Pope Adrian VI died. Adrian VI was the only Dutch pope, and the last non-Italian pope to be elected until Pope John Paul II in the twentieth century

Thursday, September 13, 2012

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Michelle Gent

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Michelle Gent: Michelle Gent - YA guru, Lycanthropist, paranormal scribbler and er, Politician? During one of the fan sharing events I seem...

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Meets Tom Hobbs

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Meets Tom Hobbs: Our next guest author, Tom Hobbs, is an independent author who also runs the website , which promotes independent autho...

History Trivia

On September 13
585 BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, king of Rome, celebrated a triumph for his victories over the Sabines, and the surrender of Collatia.
81 Roman emperor Titus, who was on the throne when Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, died in Rome at age 40.
122 Construction of Hadrian's Wall began.
533 General Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire defeated Gelimer and the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimium, near Carthage, North Africa.
1321 Dante, author of "The Divine Comedy," died.
1475 Cesare Borgia was born.


Wednesday, September 12, 2012

History Trivia

On September 12

 1185 Byzantine emperor Andronicus I was tortured and executed by the Greek nobility, led by Isaac Angelus, during a war between the Byzantines and Norman invaders of the empire.

1213 Albigensian Crusade (directed against Christian heretics in southern France) Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeated Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.

1362 Pope Innocent VI died. With a background in civil law, Innocent took an interest in reform and in the possibility of ending the Avignon Papacy.

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Sights "The Flight Of The Griffin"...

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Sights "The Flight Of The Griffin"...: Readers who enjoy YA fantasy and adventure novels will want to check out The Flight of The Griffin, by C.M. Gray. His novel  follows the...

The Author's Corner

Hear me on The Author's Corner, Thursday Nite September 13, with host, Elaine Raco Chase. Call in and chat – head to – click on blog talk radio at 8PM EASTERN time….podcasts are available after the show!
I am scheduled for 8:25 pm eastern, 7:25 central.

Tuesday, September 11, 2012

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Goes "From Earth To Eden" With Cla...

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Goes "From Earth To Eden" With Cla...: Fans of science fiction and horror, or those who have read The Sorcerer's Key, will want to check out the latest book from author Clayton...

Mary Ann Bernal: Choose Or Die: ECOPOCALPYSE CH.3 - ROOKIE BLUE POO...


September 11 Tribute

History Trivia

On September 11
 506  The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul met in the Council of Agde. 
 814 Louis I, the Pious, succeeded his father, the great French king Charlemagne, as King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans.
1226 The Roman Catholic practice of public adoration of the Blessed Sacrament outside of Mass spread from monasteries to parishes.
 1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence where the Scots jointly-led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeated the English.

Monday, September 10, 2012

History Trivia

On September 10

490 BC The Battle of Marathon took place between the forces of the Persian Empire and those of Athens, and was a decisive Greek victory.
422 Saint Celestine I was elected Roman Catholic pope.
506 The bishops of Visigothic Gaul met in the Council of Agde. The canons shed light on the moral conditions of the clergy and laity in southern France at the beginning of the transition from the Graeco-Roman social order to that of the new conquerors.
1167 Empress Matilda died. Daughter of King Henry I, widow of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, and mother of King Henry II, Matilda (also known as Maud) engaged in a civil war with Stephen of Blois over the crown of England.
1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy was assassinated by adherents of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France.
1509 An earthquake known as "The Lesser Judgment Day" hit Istanbul.
1547 The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, the last full scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulted in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI.

Sunday, September 9, 2012

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Wayne DePriest

The Wizard's Cauldron: An Interview with Wayne DePriest: The Virginian One of my earliest childhood memories (apart from accidentally burning down my stinky Aunty Ethel’s coal shed, blaming m...
On September 9

9 Arminius' alliance of six Germanic tribes ambushed and annihilated three Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.

214 Aurelian, Roman Emperior was born. 

384 Flavius Honorius, Emperor of the East Roman Republic was born.  

999 or 1000 Battle of Svolder was a naval battle fought in the western Baltic Sea between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance of his enemies; the background for this battle was the unification of Norway into a single state, long-standing Danish effort to gain control of the country, and the spread of Christianity in Scandinavia. With the allied victory, Norway was partitioned and the spread of Christianity was set back.

1087 William the Conqueror died in Rouen at age 59 after an accident while riding his horse.

1513 James IV of Scotland was defeated and died in the Battle of Flodden Field, ending Scotland's involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai.

1543 Mary Stuart, at nine-months-old, was crowned Queen of Scots in the central Scottish town of Stirling.

Saturday, September 8, 2012

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Talks With Frank A. Ruffolo

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Talks With Frank A. Ruffolo: Author Frank A. Ruffolo, recently released his contemporary series, The Trihedral of Chaos Trilogy together as one complete work this s...

History Trivia

On September 8
1011 St. Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, was captured by marauding Danes, held prisoner for months, and eventually murdered. He refused to allow himself to be ransomed because the money would have had to be raised by taxing the people. After his death he was venerated as a martyr, and the parish church of Greenwich is dedicated to him.
1157 Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England, was born.
1504 Michelangelo's David was unveiled in Florence.

M. C. Arvanitis, writer / WORDS TOGETHER MAKE TALES: M. C. Arvanitis, writer / WORDS TOGETHER MAKE TALE...

M. C. Arvanitis, writer / WORDS TOGETHER MAKE TALES: M. C. Arvanitis, writer / WORDS TOGETHER MAKE TALE...: M. C. Arvanitis, writer / WORDS TOGETHER MAKE TALES: TIPTOP, LAST LEAF (preschool and early elementary... : " Tiptop, the highest leaf ...

Friday, September 7, 2012


Choose Or Die: ECOPOCALPYSE CH.3 - ROOKIE BLUE POOP THUNDER: ECOPOCALYPSE CH.3 - ROOKIE BLUE POOP THUNDER By James McShane On any other day, flying your helicopter over the ...

History Trivia

On September 7

1251 BC a solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece.
70 The Romans sacked Jerusalem, which ended the Jewish revolt and left only the "Wailing Wall" intact.
1191 Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf – Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf, which ended the sultan's aura of invincibility.
1497 Sailor Perkin Warbeck becomes English King Richard IV.
1533 Queen Elizabeth I was born. The birth of a daughter was a setback to King Henry VIII in his quest for an heir, and a serious blow to his wife Anne Boleyn.

Thursday, September 6, 2012

History Trivia

On September 6

973 Pope John XIII died. John maintained a peaceful pontificate, and stayed closely allied with the Holy Roman Empire.
1525 Peace was declared between England and France.
1651 Charles II spent the day hiding in an oak tree following defeat by Oliver Cromwell at Worcester.

Book Review - Into The Flames by Wendy Steele

Book Review
K-Trina Meador
Into The Flames by Wendy Steele
4.0 out of 5 stars
An easy read giving you a glimpse of this talented author
Wendy Steele has penned four stories demonstrating her proficiency, talent and vivid imagination. The stories are short and a quick read. Each one has delivers its own message in her unique style.

If I were to rate, in order, how I liked the stories it would be (1) Baptism Of Fire (2) Mirror Mirror (3) For the Love of a Beautiful Woman and (4) Hand in Glove.

Baptism of Fire I liked because of the story of personal tragedy...and having to face the consequences.

Mirror Mirror I liked due to the story being told about two friends.

For the Love of a Beautiful Woman was about pushing limits; what would you do or not do for love? Do you have limits? Really?

And Hand in Glove... well, it was too violent for me to enjoy.

I rated this book 4 stars only due to the story "Hand in Glove". If you are asking yourself if this book is worth reading then the answer is a simple and clear: Yes.

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Hangs Out With P.W. Fox

Go Indie -- Discover Indie Authors: Summer of Indie Hangs Out With P.W. Fox: Summer of Indie spoke with author P.W. Fox about their fantasy novella, Sea-Change, which tells the story of the journey of a young bride-t...

History Trivia

On September 5
394 Theodosius reunited the entire Roman empire for the last time with victory at the Battle of Frigidus.
1198 Philips van Zwaben Hohenstaufen crowned king of Roman Catholic Germany.
1316 John XXII the second Roman Catholic pope to reside in Avignon, France rather than Rome, was crowned.
1548 Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII, died.
1557 Bishop Stephen Gardiner was imprisoned; he remained in the Tower of London for most of the reign of Edward VI.
1550 William Cecil (Lord Chancellor to Queen Elizabeth I) appointed himself English minister of foreign affairs.
1666 Great Fire of London ended: 10,000 buildings including St. Paul's Cathedral were destroyed, but only 16 people were known to have died.