Wednesday, April 30, 2014

History Trivia - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire

April 30

311 Emperor Galerius legal recognition of Christians in the Roman Empire.

313 Roman emperor Licinius unified the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.

1513  Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, was executed on the orders of Henry VIII.

1527 Henry VIII of England and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
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Tuesday, April 29, 2014

History Trivia - Hugh of Cluny dies

April 29

 1109 Hugh of Cluny died. Hugh was the driving force in bringing the monastery of Cluny to preeminence in medieval France.

1347 Catherine of Siena was born. Catherine, the patron saint of Italy, played a significant role in returning the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. She was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970.

1429 Joan of Arc led French forces to victory over English at Orleans.
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Sunday, April 27, 2014

History Trivia - Battle of Dunbar - Scots defeated

April 27

1124 David I became King of Scots. 1296 Battle of Dunbar: The Scots were defeated by Edward I of England. This battle was the only significant field action in the campaign of 1296 when King Edward I of England had invaded Scotland to punish King John Balliol for his refusal to support English military action in France.
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Saturday, April 26, 2014

Ancient Chisel Used to Build Western Wall Found

chisel, archaeology
Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News
A 2,000-year-old stonemason’s chisel that may have been used in the construction of Jerusalem’s Western Wall has been unearthed at the bottom of the structure along with a number of Second Temple-era objects, claims an Israeili archaeologist.
Some of the artifacts, which include a Roman sword, cooking vessels, a gold bell, coins and a ceramic seal, would suggest the Western Wall, a holy site for both Muslims and Jews, had not been built by King Herod at all.
Eli Shukron, an archaeologist working for the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), found the chisel last summer during a dig near a tunnel at the lower base of the Western Wall.

Also known as the Wailing Wall, the massive structure is venerated by Jews as the sole remnant of their Second Temple, destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D. To the Muslims, the Western Wall is revered as the Wall of Buraq, the place where Muhammad tethered his winged horse Buraq after being transported from Mecca to Jerusalem.
Shukron, who has been working in the area with archaeologist Ronny Reich of the University of Haifa for the past 19 years, believes the chisel fell from a stonemason’s hand as he was working on scaffolding in the higher sections of the wall. The builder did not bother to get down and retrieve it.
“The chisel was found inside rubble of stone chips that fell from the stonemasons working on the rocks comprising the Western Wall,” Shukron told Israel’s daily Haaretz.
Evidence of 2000-Year-Old Famine Found in Jerusalem
About 6 inches long, the metal tool features a flattened head, as a result of being repeatedly banged on rock.
“People pray and kiss these holy stones every day, but somebody carved them, somebody chiseled them, somebody positioned them,” Shukron was reported as saying.
“They were workers, human beings, who had tools. Today for the first time we can touch a chisel that belonged to one of them,” he added.
According to Haaretz, the IAA has not yet confirmed the finding, but Shukron trusts his findings.
“I have no doubt that it belongs to the time the Wall was built,” he said.
“We found it at the base of the Western Wall, about six meters (19.68 feet) below the main street of Jerusalem in the era of the Second Temple,” he added.
Ancient Rural Town Uncovered in Israel
Commonly believed to have been part of King Herod’s massive expansion project on the Temple Mount, which included the Second Temple itself, the Western Wall may have not been built by the Bible’s bloodiest tyrant after all.
According to Shukron, the excavation revealed a number of coins beneath the wall which date decades after Herod’s death.
This would suggest that construction of the Western Wall had not even begun at the time of Herod’s death and was likely completed only generations later by one of his descendants.
The IAA said it would not comment on the discovery until analysis on the chisel and other findings were completed.
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Humans May Have Dispersed Out of Africa Earlier Than Thought

The 1.8-million-year-old skull unearthed in Dmanisi, Georgia, suggests the earliest members of the <em>Homo</em> genus belonged to the same species, say scientists in a paper published Oct. 18, 2013 in the journal Science.
By Charles Q. Choi, Live Science Contributor
Modern humans may have dispersed in more than one wave of migration out of Africa, and they may have done so earlier than scientists had long thought, researchers now say.
Modern humans first arose between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago in Africa. But when and how the modern human lineage then dispersed out of Africa has long been controversial.
Scientists have suggested the exodus from Africa started between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. However, stone artifacts dating to at least 100,000 years ago that were recently uncovered in the Arabian Desert suggested that modern humans might have begun their march across the globe earlier than once suspected.
 Out of Africa models
To help solve this mystery, Katerina Harvati, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Tübingen in Germany, and her colleagues tested four competing out-of-Africa models. Two models involved a single dispersal — one involved a route northward, up the Nile River valley and then eastward across the northern end of the Arabian Peninsula into Asia; the other involved a "beachcomber" route along the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula into Asia. Two other models involved multiple dispersals, with both models involving routes along the northern and southern ends of the Arabian Peninsula — one involved connections and gene flow between these routes, and the other did not. [See Photos of Our Closest Human Ancestor]
The investigators used these models to predict how much the genes and skull measurements of different groups in Africa, Asia and Australia might have diverged from one another given how separated they were by space and time. Then, the researchers compared these predictions with actual gene and skull data from 10 African, Asian and Australian human populations.
The researchers found that both the genetic and skull data supported a multiple-dispersal model involving several migrations.
"It is really exciting that our results point to the possibility of a multiple-dispersals model of modern humans out of Africa," Harvati said. "A multiple-dispersals scenario, with earlier modern humans leaving Africa as early as 130,000 before present, can perhaps account for part of the morphological and genetic patterns that we see among modern human populations."
 The first wave of migrations probably followed the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula as early as 130,000 years ago to Australia and the west Pacific region, while the second wave traveled along the northern route about 50,000 years ago, the researchers said. These waves of migration appear relatively isolated from each other.
"Australian Aborigines, Papuans and Melanesians were relatively isolated after the early dispersal along the southern route," study lead author Hugo Reyes-Centeno, of the University of Tübingen, said in a statement. Other Asian populations apparently descended from members of the later northern wave of migration, the researchers said.
The delay between these waves of migration could be due to ancient environmental factors, "specifically climatic conditions that might have impeded the crossing of the Arabian Peninsula, such as desert conditions," Harvati said.
Ancient environmental factors might not only have prevented migrations, but also spurred them, Havarti said.
"For example, the documentation of severe droughts throughout eastern Africa between about 75,000 to 135,000 years ago could have encouraged a dispersal into other parts of Africa as well as outside of the continent," Harvati said. "More favorable conditions within Africa could have limited migrations out of the continent between 75,000 to 50,000 years ago."

Effects of interbreeding
The researchers cautioned that interbreeding between modern humans and other lineages of humans might influence the results of this new study. For example, instances of interbreeding with the now-extinct Denisovan lineage might have introduced ancient genes into certain modern human groups, perhaps making them look as if they left Africa earlier than they actually did. [Denisovan Gallery: Tracing the Genetics of Human Ancestors]
"Our study did not specifically test for hybridization with archaic humans, and, of course, it is possible that such admixture could contribute to our results," Harvati said. "We feel, however, that the very low levels of admixture that have been proposed are not sufficient to drive our findings."
The researchers said continued fieldwork and genetic advancements might help confirm this model of multiple, relatively isolated waves of migration.
"The story of human evolution tends to be simplified," Harvati said. "However, more complex models, such as multiple dispersals versus a single dispersal out of Africa, gain strength as more data and new methods become available."
"Further fieldwork in the region of the southern route — for example, the Arabian Peninsula, southeast Asia, Melanesia — is essential in order to further understand the timing and route of early modern human dispersals," Harvati said. "Of course, this is a vast geographical space that has been largely understudied, but it is crucial in developing our knowledge of the first Eurasians."
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Blood in Gourd Didn't Belong to Louis XVI, New DNA Study Finds

  By Megan Gannon, News Editor
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1800's Shipwreck Rediscovered Near Golden Gate Bridge

City of Chester photograph
City of Chester, a passenger steamer that sank near San Francisco in 1888.
Credit: San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park K01.2.571PL
By Stephanie Pappas, Senior Writer

The lost shipwreck of a passenger steamer that went down near the Golden Gate in San Francisco has been rediscovered.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced the discovery of the remains of the SS City of Chester today (April 23). NOAA's Coast Survey Navigational Response Team 6 discovered the wreck last year during a sonar survey of the San Francisco Bay.
The City of Chester was built in 1875 and sank in 1888. Carrying 90 passengers, the ship was steaming away from San Francisco toward Eureka, Calif., on Aug. 22 of that year. The fog that day was dense.
Only a few minutes into the voyage, around 10 a.m., the City of Chester was traveling through the Golden Gate, the entrance to San Francisco Bay that is now spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge. The ship was struck by the Oceanic, another ship arriving at the harbor from Asia. [Shipwrecks Gallery: Secrets of the Deep]
Abandoned ship
sonar survey of the city of chester
A 2013 sonar survey of the City of Chester wreck shows the ship sitting upright on the ocean floor.
Credit: NOAA Office of Coast Survey NRT6
The City of Chester lasted only six minutes before the ship sunk, according to NOAA. Sixteen people died in the wreck, and the public initially raised a racially charged outcry against the Asian immigrants on the Oceanic. Stories of those passengers' heroism in saving victims on the City of Chester soon dampened those cries, however.
The wreck's location in the aftermath of the sinking was no mystery, said James Delgado, the director of maritime heritage for NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. In 1888, the now-defunct U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey dragged a wire behind a tugboat and snagged the hull of what they believed to be the City of Chester. Salvage diver Capt. Robert Whitelaw also claimed to have sent a diver to the shipwreck in 1890. Whitelaw reported that the ship was cut nearly in two by the Oceanic's blow.
The diver "said there were bodies in the wreck, and it spooked him and he didn't want to go back," Delgado told Live Science.
But over the years, the wreck was largely forgotten, except as a footnote as the second-deadliest maritime disaster at the Golden Gate. In May 2013, NOAA's Coast Survey team was conducting a sonar survey in preparation for the America's Cup yacht race, Delgado said. He asked the team to venture into the area where the City of Chester might have gone down.
Fortuitous find
city of chester shipwreck location
A modern view of the Golden Gate and the City of Chester's approximate location.
Credit: Robert V. Schwemmer, NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries
The team was able to find the ship, "zoom in" with sonar and survey it. The survey revealed 202-foot-long (62 meters) City of Chester sitting upright at the edge of a shoal in 216 feet (66 m) of water, "shrouded in mud," Delgado said.
The hull rises 18 feet (5.5 m) from the ocean floor, and high-resolution sonar even located the gash from the collision on the port side of the ship, NOAA reported.
The discovery highlights the use of science and technology in ocean exploration, Delgado said, adding that he hopes the mission inspires young people to study science.
"Not only are we boldly going and finding new life [in the oceans]," he said, "we're finding evidence of past civilization."
There are no plans to raise the wreck, and the strong currents and murkey water at the Golden Gate make diving to the wreck a dangerous proposition, Delgado said. NOAA intends to create an exhibit about the ship at the office of the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary at Crissy Field in San Francisco and will also work with Google Oceans to put information about the wreck online, Delgado said.
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The Phil Naessens Show: Miami Heat, San Antonio Spurs & Oklahoma City Thunder NBA Playoff Talk

On today’s Phil Naessens Show David Ramil joins Phil to discuss the Miami Heats 2-0 lead over the Charlotte Bobcats in their first round Eastern Conference Playoff matchup plus more Heat talk. J.R. Wilco joins Phil to discuss why the San Antonio Spurs and Dallas Mavericks are tied 1-1 in their first round Western Conference playoff matchup plus more Spurs talk. J.A. Sherman joins Phil to discuss why the Memphis Grizzlies have a 2-1 lead over the Oklahoma City Thunder with the focus on what happened in game three plus more Thunder talk. Follow on Bloglovin

History Trivia -

April 26

121 Marcus Aurelius (Roman Emperor 161-180) was born. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.

757 Paolo Orsini replaced his brother Pope Stephen II, as Paul I.

1220 German king Frederick II granted bishops sovereign rights.

1467 The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appeared in Genazzano, Italy.

1478 Pazzi conspirators attacked Lorenzo and killed Giuliano de'Medici.

1514 Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn.

1564 William Shakespeare was baptized.
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Friday, April 25, 2014

The Adventures of Cecilia Spark - The Mystical Mountains of Terra - Kindle edition FREE 4/25-4/27/2014

A race against time. Good versus evil. The Sceptre of Malvado is at risk of falling into the wrong hands, and Soldier's fate depends on its recovery. Can Cecilia and Soldier find the sceptre before the total eclipse of the sun or will someone else beat them to it?
Another gripping adventure for Cecilia Spark, with lots of thrills and spills along the way.
Suitable for 5-8 year old boys and girls.
Illustrated novel.
The Mystical Mountains of Terra is the second book in the series the Adventures of Cecilia Spark.

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History Trivia - Athens surrenders to Sparta, ending the Peloponesian War

April 25

404 BC Athens surrendered to Sparta, ending the Peloponesian War. 

799 Pope Leo III was attacked during a procession in Rome due, in part, for recognizing Charlemagne as patricius of the Romans, which upset the delicate balance between the Byzantines and the west that his predecessor had established. He fled to Charlemagne, who escorted the Pope  safely back to Rome where he oversaw a commission that vindicated Leo and deported his enemies. Leo would later crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor. Follow on Bloglovin

Thursday, April 24, 2014

The Phil Naessens Show: What’s Wrong with Jason Heyward?

On today’s Phil Naessens Show Patrick MacCoon joins Phil to discuss the NL East Atlanta Braves, Jason Heyward, BJ Upton, Dan Uggla, the pitching staff and more Braves talk. Alex Hall joins Phil to discuss Yoenis Cespedes, Jim Johnson, sweeping the Astros and being swept by the Rangers and more Oakland A’s talk. Mark Berman joins Phil to discuss the National League East. Follow on Bloglovin

The Wizard of Notts Recommends: Notts County vs Crawley - League One Highlights 2013/2014

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Mr. Chuckles is proud to present Authorsdb Fabulous Five reshuffle

Mr. Chuckles invites you to visit the Authorsdb profile pages:

 Ngaire Elder

Bill Jones, Jr.

Mark Barry

K. Meador

Mary Ann Bernal Follow on Bloglovin