Monday, July 21, 2014

History Trivia - The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus destroyed by arson

July 21

 356 BC The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was destroyed by arson.

 365 A tsunami devastated the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The tsunami was caused by an earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter Scale. 5,000 people perished in Alexandria, and 45,000 more died outside the city.

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeated rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England.

1545 The first landing of French troops on the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight.

1588 The Armada - an invasion fleet sent by Philip II of Spain - was sighted off the coast of Cornwall.


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Sunday, July 20, 2014

History Trivia - Norse nobleman Rollo captures and burns Chartres.

July 20

 356 BC Alexander the Great was born.

70 First Jewish-Roman War: Siege of Jerusalem -Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian, stormed the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army was drawn into street fights with the Zealots.

911 Norman incursions: Norse nobleman Rollo captured and burnt Chartres.

1304 Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle – King Edward I of England took the stronghold using the WarWolf (siege engine).

1304 Petrarch (Francisco Petracco) the Italian poet, scholar, and humanist was born.

1398 Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England died.

1553 British Government leader John Dudley was captured in Cambridge and later executed for treason for his part in putting Lady Jane Grey on the throne after the death of King Edward VI.

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Saturday, July 19, 2014

History Trivia - Battle of Halidon Hill – The English defeat the Scots

July 19

711 Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete – Muslim Umayyad Caliphate forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeated the Visigoths led by King Roderic.

1318 Austria recognized the Three Forest Cantons, marking the beginning of modern Switzerland.

1333 Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill – The English won a decisive victory over the Scots.

1545 The Tudor warship Mary Rose capsized and sank off Portsmouth with the loss of approximately 500 men.

1553 Lady Jane Grey was replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days of reign.

1588 Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada was sighted in the English Channel.
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Friday, July 18, 2014

History Trivia - Great fire of Rome while Emperor Nero allegedly fiddles

July 18

390 BC Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia – a Roman army was defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.

64 Great fire of Rome: a fire started in the merchant area of Rome near Circus Maximus and much of the city was destroyed while Emperor Nero allegedly fiddled.

1290 King Edward I of England issued the Edict of Expulsion, banishing all Jews (numbering about 16,000) from England.

 1334 The bishop of Florence blessed the first foundation stone for the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral, designed by the artist Giotto di Bondone.

1389 Kingdom of France and Kingdom of England agreed to the Truce of Leulinghem, inaugurating a 13 year peace; the longest period of sustained peace during the Hundred Years War.


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Thursday, July 17, 2014

History Trivia - The French defeat the English at the Battle of Castillon

July 17
Edward the Elder
 
 
Alfred the Great
 
 924 King Edward the Elder of England died. He became king in 899 upon the death of his father, Alfred the Great. His court was at Winchester, previously the capital of Wessex. He captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes in 917 and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of Æthelflæd, his sister. He was the second king of the Anglo-Saxons as this title was created by his father.

1203 The Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople by assault. The Byzantine emperor Alexius III Angelus fled from his capital into exile.

1453 The French defeated the English at the Battle of Castillon, in the last clash of the Hundred Years War.



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Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Ancient Priest's Tomb Painting Discovered Near Great Pyramid at Giza

By Owen Jarus
 A painting discovered in the tomb of a priest
A painting discovered in the tomb of a priest, just 1,000 feet (300 meters) from the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt depicts scenes of ancient life.
Credit: Photo courtesy Maksim Lebedev


A wall painting, dating back over 4,300 years, has been discovered in a tomb located just east of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
The painting shows vivid scenes of life, including boats sailing south on the Nile River, a bird hunting trip in a marsh and a man named Perseneb who's shown with his wife and dog.
While Giza is famous for its pyramids, the site also contains fields of tombs that sprawl to the east and west of the Great Pyramid. These tombs were created for private individuals who held varying degrees of rank and power during the Old Kingdom (2649-2150 B.C.), the age when the Giza pyramids were built

The new painting was discovered in 2012 by a team from the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which has been excavating these tombs since 1996.
A surprise discovery
Scientists discovered the painting when they began restoring the tomb of Perseneb, a man who was a "priest" and "steward," according to the tomb's inscriptions.
 The ancient tomb contains a central room
The ancient tomb, possibly for a priest, contains a central room (shown here), with four statues.
Credit: Photo courtesy Maksim Lebedev
His tomb, located 1,000 feet (300 meters) east of the Great Pyramid of Giza, contains an offering room, central room and burial chamber. The three rooms contain 11 statues showing depictions of Perseneb and members of his family. First recorded in the 19th century by the German explorer Karl Richard Lepsius and French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette, the tomb is believed to date to the middle or late fifth dynasty (ca. 2450-2350 B.C.). The fifth dynasty is a time period within the Old Kingdom.
"Known since the 19th century, the [tomb] could hardly present any new principal features. Therefore, it was a real surprise to discover an Old Kingdom painting on the eastern wall of the central room," wrote Maksim Lebedev, a reader (the American equivalent is a professor) at the Russian State University for the Humanities, in an email to Live Science.
"The painting was made on a thin layer of fine white plaster darkened with 19th-century soot and dirt. By the time of recording, only about 30 percent of the original plaster had preserved on the wall," Lebedev said.
Since the 19th century, the growth and industrialization of Cairo has led to problems with pollution at Giza. And the fact that people were actually living inside the tomb in some periods (including the Middle Ages) also damaged the painting, Lebedev said.
Nevertheless, "none of the scenes has been lost completely. The remaining traces allow [for the] reconstruction [of] the whole composition," Lebedev said.
Scenes of life
The reconstructed painting reflects ancient life. At the top of the painting there are images of boats sailing the Nile River, their sails pointing south. They "probably represent the return of the owner from the north after a pilgrimage or inspection of his funerary estates," Lebedev said. Funerary estates were tax-exempt property left by the deceased to help support surviving dependents and the upkeep of his tomb. [Photos: Amazing Discoveries at Egypt's Giza Pyramids]
The archaeologists went to work, carefully cleaning the painting, removing soot and dirt
Archaeologists removed dirt and soot from the tomb painting.
Credit: Photo courtesy Maksim Lebedev
The painting's "two lower registers preserved representations of various agricultural scenes: plowing, sowing, workers driving sheep over sown seed, driving donkeys laden with sheaves to the threshing floor," Lebedev said.
The painting also shows an image of Perseneb, his wife and what appears to be his dog. There is also a marsh scene with a man on a boat who appears to be bird hunting.
"All the depicted scenes had important symbolic meanings. Fowling (bird hunting) in the marshland could refer to the ideas of rebirth and taming of chaotic forces," Lebedev said. "The full agricultural sequence relating to crops represents the most crucial event in the life of ancient Egyptian society," he added. Also, the representation of "boats with sails going southwards is another important tomb subject, which reflected the high status of the person."
More discoveries to come
The area the Russian team has been excavating contains a number of tombs that may hold undiscovered wall paintings. The team has found indirect evidence for paintings in some tombs, such as very smooth walls and remains of wall plaster and paint, Lebedev said.
"Since many rock-cut chapels of the eastern edge of the Giza plateau were rapidly excavated or just recorded [without excavation] in the first half of the 20th century, sometimes without sufficient documentation, and still covered with thick layers of rough plaster left from later inhabitants [who lived in the tombs], one may expect that more paintings will be discovered in this part of the necropolis."
The tomb of Perseneb was partly restored by the Russian mission in 2013. The work was supported by a donation from the Thames Valley Ancient Egyptian Society in the United Kingdom.
The painting reconstructions will be published, in full, in a scholarly publication in the future. The images on Live Science show just a few of the reconstructed scenes.
http://www.livescience.com/46806-tomb-painting-discovered-near-great-pyramid.html
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History Trivia - 1439 - Kissing banned in England to stop germs from spreading.

July 16,

276 Mark Annius Florianus, emperor of Rome, was murdered.

1054 Three Roman legates broke relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal Bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Historians frequently describe the event as the start of the East-West Schism. 

1377 Coronation of Richard II of England. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III.

1429 Joan of Arc led the French army in Battle of Orleans.

1439 Kissing was banned in England to stop germs from spreading.


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