Saturday, June 30, 2012
June 30, 296 St Marcellinus began his reign as Catholic Pope. The violent persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian dominated his papacy. Also the papal archives were seized and destroyed, but the famous Cemetery of Calixtus was saved by the Christians when they blocked its entrance. 350 Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantine dynasty, was defeated and killed in Rome by troops of the usurper Magnentius. 1397 Denmark, Norway & Sweden signed the Union of Kalmar under Queen Margaretha.
Friday, June 29, 2012
June 29, 512 a solar eclipse was recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. 1194 Sverre was crowned King of Norway. 1509 Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII of England died. 1613 The Globe Theatre in London, England burned to the ground. 1644 Charles I of England defeated a Parliamentarian detachment at the Battle of Cropredy Bridge, the last battle won by an English King on English soil.
Thursday, June 28, 2012
June 28, 548 Byzantine Empress Theodora, wife of East Roman Emperor Justinian I, and thought to be the most influential and powerful woman in the Roman Empire's history, died. 767 Pope St Paul I died. His reign was dominated by relations with the Frankish and Lombard kings and with the Eastern Roman Emperor. 1098 Fighters of the First Crusade defeated Kerbogha of Mosul. 1245 First Council of Lyons (13th ecumenical council) opened. 1461 Edward IV was crowned King of England. 1491 King Henry VIII of England was born. 1519 Charles V was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
June 27, 363 Roman Emperor Julian died, ending the Pagan Revival. 678 St Agatho began his reign as Catholic Pope. The great event of this pontificate was the Sixth General Council, the Third of Constantinople which extinguished the Monothelite heresy and reunited Constantinople to Rome.
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
June 26, 221 Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopted his cousin Alexander Severus as his heir and received the title of Caesar. 363 Emperor Julian, the last Roman emperor to oppose Christianity, died in Mesopotamia at age 32, while fighting the Persians. General Jovian was proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield. 684 Pope St. Benedict consecrated. The consecration of Benedict was delayed nearly a year until Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV could approve his election. 1284 the legendary Pied Piper led 130 children out of Hamelin, Germany. 1409 Western Schism: the Roman Catholic church was led into a double schism as Petros Philargos was crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. 1483 Richard III was crowned king of England after declaring his nephews Edward and Richard illegitimate.
Monday, June 25, 2012
June 25, 253 Pope Cornelius died at Centumcellae where he was exiled during the Christian persecution under Trebonianus Gallus Augustus. 524 The Franks defeated the Burgundians in the Battle of Vézeronce. 841 In the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye, forces led by Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated the armies of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine. 1134 King Niels of Denmark died. 1178 Five Canterbury monks reported something exploding on the Moon.
Sunday, June 24, 2012
June 24, 109 The Aqua Traiana was inaugurated by Emperor Trajan, the aqueduct channeled water from Lake Bracciano, 25 miles north-west of Rome. 217 Hannibal defeated the Romans at Lago di Trasimeno in the Second Punic War. 451: 10th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. 451 Attila the Hun raised his siege of Orleans, France in a prelude to his being pushed out of France by a combined army of Romans and barbarians. 803 Bishop Higbald of Lindisfarne died. In a communiqué to the scholar Alcuin of York (teacher at the Carolingian court at the invitation of Charlemagne), he described in graphic detail the Viking raid on Lindisfarne on 8 January 793 in which many of his monks were killed. 843 Vikings destroyed Nantes (western France). 1314 Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeated the English army under Edward II at Bannockburn, near Stirling. 1340 In the Hundred Years War, British fleet under the command of King Edward III destroyed the French at Sluys (Flanders). 1374 A sudden outbreak of St. John's Dance (Dancing Plague) caused people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapsed from exhaustion. One of the most prominent theories is that victims suffered from ergot (fungus) poisoning. 1441 King Henry VI of England founded Eton College. 1497 John Cabot landed in North America at Newfoundland leading the first European exploration of the region since the Vikings. 1497 Cornish rebels Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank were executed at Tyburn, London. 1509 Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were crowned King and Queen of England. 1520: Mass at Field of Cloth of Gold where Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France met between Guînes and Ardres near Calais to discuss an alliance.
Saturday, June 23, 2012
June 23, 79 Titus succeeded his father Vespasian as the tenth Roman Emperor. 930 The world's oldest parliament, the Iceland Parliament, was established. 1314 The Battle of Bannockburn. This significant battle helped the Scots regain independence from England and secured the throne of Scotland for Robert the Bruce. 1509 Henry VIII of England crowned. 1532 Henry VIII and François I signed a secret treaty against Emperor Charles V.
Friday, June 22, 2012
June 22, 168 BC Battle of Pydna: Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeated and captured Macedonian King Perseus ending the Third Macedonian War. 1377 Richard II succeeded Edward III as king of England. 1633 The Holy Office in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe. (on Oct 31, 1992, Vatican admitted it was wrong)
Thursday, June 21, 2012
June 21, 217 BC Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal destroyed a Roman army under Consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. 524 Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeated the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. 1314 The Scots, under Robert the Bruce, defeated Edward II's army at Bannockburn. 1327 King Edward III of England died. 1527 Niccolo Machiavelli, author of "The Prince," died. 1675 Christopher Wren started the rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral in London after the Great Fire.
Wednesday, June 20, 2012
June 20, 236 BC Scipio Africanus, Roman statesman and general of the Second Punic War was born. 404 the first Cathedral of Santa Sophia in Constantinople was burned to the ground by rioters. 451 Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius' defeated Attila the Hun at Catalarinische Fields. Theodorid, King of the Visigoths was mortally wounded in this battle. 1214 The University of Oxford received its charter. 1397 The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. 1685 Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth declared himself King of England at Bridgwater.
Tuesday, June 19, 2012
June 19, 1098 Antioch fell to the Crusaders. 1179 The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Earl Erling Skakke was killed, and the battle changed the tide of the civil wars. 1215 King John signed the Magna Carta - a statement of English liberties at Runnymede, Surrey. 1306 Wars for Scottish Independence: The Earl of Pembroke's army defeated Robert Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven. 1566 James I Stuart, King of Scotland (James VI)/England) was born.
Monday, June 18, 2012
June 18, 860 Swedish Vikings attacked Constantinople. 1053 Pope Leo IX was taken prisoner by the Normans. 1155 German King Frederick Barbarossa was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1178 Proposed time of origin of the lunar crater Giordano Bruno - five Canterbury monks reported an explosion on the moon (only known observation). 1264 The Parliament of Ireland met at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitively known meeting of this Irish legislature.
Sunday, June 17, 2012
June 17, 1194 Richard I (the Lionheart) was crowned again, after having been held captive in Australia for two years by Emperor Henry VI. 1239 Edward I was born. 1497 Cornish Rebellion - Battle of Deptford Bridge – forces under King Henry VII defeated troops led by Michael An Gof.
Saturday, June 16, 2012
June 16,455 Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. 1487 Battle of Stoke Field, Henry VII defeated pretender Lambert Simnel at Stoke, in the final battle of the Wars of the Roses. 1567 Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle prison Scotland since she was perceived as a threat to Elizabeth I's monarchy.
Friday, June 15, 2012
June 15,763 BC Assyrians recorded a solar eclipse that was later used to fix the chronology of Mesopotamian history. 1094 El Cid, the great Spanish national hero, captured Valencia from the Moors. 1184 King Magnus V of Norway was killed at the Battle of Fimreite. 1215 King John signed the Magna Carta at Runnymede, England. 1219 King Valdemar brought victory for Denmark. According to legend, the Danish flag fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse (now Tallinn) in Estonia, turning the tide in favor of the Danes. 1330 Edward, the Black Prince was born. 1381 Wat Tyler, leader of English Peasants' Revolt,was beheaded in London. 1520 Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther in papal bull Exsurge Domine.
Thursday, June 14, 2012
Across the Plain of Shining Books: Mary Ann Bernal - The Briton and the Dane: Legacy: A Shining hello to historical novelist Mary Ann Bernal, author of The Briton and the Dane stories, epic adventures set in the Dark Ages d...
June 14,v1381 The Peasant's Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels plundered and burned the Tower of London, and killed the Archbishop of Canterbury. 1497 Giovanni (Juan) Borgia, favorite son of Pope Alexander VI, was murdered, allegedly by his brother Cesare or by his younger brother Gioffre. 1645 Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalists at the Battle of Naseby, giving parliament victory in the civil war.
Wednesday, June 13, 2012
June 13, 37 Gnaeus Julius Agricola was born. He was a Roman general noted for conquering all of England and part of Scotland (77-84). 49 Pope Leo I, The Great, presented his Tome, affirming the reality of the two natures of Christ human and divine to Flavian, the Bishop of Constantinople. 313 The 'Edict of Milan' was proclaimed, ending the persecution of Christians across the Roman Empire. 823 Charles I (the Bald) was born. He was the Grandson of Charlemagne who with his two half brothers divided Charlemagne's empire into three parts, with Charles becoming the first king of France (843-877). 1249 Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots. 1373 Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Alliance (world's oldest) was signed in London. 1525 Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns. 1625 King Charles I married Henrietta Maria of France, Princess of France.
Tuesday, June 12, 2012
June 12, 28 Gaius Carrinas' triumphant procession through Rome. 1381 Peasants' Revolt in England, rebels arrived at Blackheath. Although the revolt did not succeed in its stated aims, it did succeed in showing the nobility what the peasants were capable of, which helped to form a radical tradition in British politics. 1429 Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc led the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, First Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau. 1519 Cosimo de Medici was born.
Monday, June 11, 2012
June 11, 1184 BC Trojan War: Troy was sacked and burned, according to calculations by Eratosthenes. 173 Marcomannic Wars: The Roman army in Moravia was encircled by the Quadi, who had broken the peace treaty. 1183 Henry the Young King, second of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine died. 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor. 1429 Hundred Years' War: start of the Battle of Jargeau, Joan of Arc's first offensive battle. 1456 Anne Neville, wife of Richard III of England was born. 1488 Rebels defeated and deposed James III of Scotland at the Battle of Sauchieburn, making his son, James, King. 1509 Henry VIII of England married Catherine of Aragon, his brother Arthur's widow.
Sunday, June 10, 2012
June 10, 323 BC (or June 11) Alexander the Great, Macedonian king, died from either fever or excessive wine at the age of 32. 1190 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowned while crossing a river on a crusade to the Holy Land. 1258 Provisions of Oxford issued, which is considered to be England's first written constitution. 1540 Thomas Cromwell arrested in Westminster after falling out of favor with Henry VIII for having arranged the King's marriage to Anne of Cleves, which was quickly annulled.
Saturday, June 9, 2012
June 9, 411 BC Coup in Athens succeeded, forming a short-lived oligarchy. 68 The Roman emperor Nero was deposed and committed suicide, ending the Julian-Claudian imperial dynasty. 721 Odo of Aquitaine defeated the Moors in the Battle of Toulouse. 1310 Duccio's Maestà Altarpiece, a seminal artwork of the early Italian Renaissance, was unveiled and installed in the Siena Cathedral in Siena, Italy. 1549 Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued The Protestant Book of Common Prayer, sparking a Catholic peasant rebellion.
Friday, June 8, 2012
June 8, 65 Jews revolted against Rome, capturing the fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem. 68 Rome Senate accepted Emperor Galba. 452 Italy invaded by Attila the Hun. 536 St Silverius began his reign as Catholic Pope. 218 Opellius Macrinus, Emperor of Rome (217-8), died in battle. 793 Vikings raid the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, and is commonly accepted as the beginning of the Scandinavian invasion of England. 1042 Harthacanute, King of Denmark and England died. 1191, Richard the Lion-Hearted of England arrived at the port of Acre in the Holy Land during the third Crusade. He captured Acre, but could not recapture Jerusalem from the Turks. 1376 Edward, the Black Prince died. 1405 Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, were executed in York on Henry IV's orders.
Thursday, June 7, 2012
June 7, 421 Eudocia Athenais married Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II who constructed a series of defensive walls that surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople. 555 Vigilius, first Pope of the Byzantine Papacy, died. 1099 first Crusaders arrived in Jerusalem. 1329 Robert Bruce, King of Scotland died. 1340 Rotterdam Netherlands founded.1394 Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England died from plague. 1557 England declared war on France.
Wednesday, June 6, 2012
June 6, 1242 Twenty four wagonloads of Talmudic (Hebrew instruction)books were burned in Paris. 513 Italian Wars: Battle of Novara. Swiss troops defeated the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza was restored. 1523 Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden, marking the end of the Kalmar Union, which had united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, and Orkney),and Sweden. 1683 The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, opened as the world's first university museum.
Tuesday, June 5, 2012
June 5, 70 Titus and his Roman legions breached the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem. 1099 Members of the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and interpreted it as a sign they would recapture Jerusalem. 1294 Saint Celestine V was elected Roman Catholic pope. He was unhappy with the office and abdicated before the year was out. 1341 Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York, son of Edward III of England was born.
Monday, June 4, 2012
Sunday, June 3, 2012
June 3, 350 Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaimed himself Roman Emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators. 1083 Henry IV of Germany stormed Rome, capturing St Peter's Cathedral. 1098 First Crusade: Antioch fell to the crusaders after an eight-month siege. 1162 Thomas À Becket consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury.
Saturday, June 2, 2012
June 2,455 Geiseric the Vandal sacked Rome. 575 Benedict I was confirmed as Pope. 597 Saxon King Ethelbert was converted to Christianity and baptized by St. Augustine of Canterbury. 1098 First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ended as Crusader forces took the city. The second siege began on June 7. 1420 Henry V married Catherine of Valois. 1572 Thomas Howard 4th duke of Norfolk and second cousin to Elizabeth I, was executed for treason for plotting to put Mary Queen of Scots on the English throne and restoring Catholicism.
Friday, June 1, 2012
June 1, 193 Roman Emperor Didius Julianus was assassinated. 987 Hugh Capet was elected King of France. 1204 King Philip Augustus of France conquered Rouen. 1495 Friar John Cor (Lindores Abbey, Scotland) recorded the first known batch of Scotch Whisky. 1533 Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England.