December 20, 44 BC Cicero, the great Roman orator and statesman, delivered his third Philippic (one of 4 speeches against Mark Antony) in the Roman Senate. 69 Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, entered Rome to claim the title of emperor. 217 The papacy of Zephyrinus ends. Callixtus I was elected as the sixteenth pope, but was opposed by the theologian Hippolytus who accused him of laxity and of being a Modalist, one who denies any distinction between the three persons of the Trinity.1192 Richard the Lion-Heart was captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after signing a treaty with Saladin ending the Third crusade.
1334 Benedict XII was elected pope. The third pope to reside at Avignon, Benedict attempted to reform the church and its religious orders. His pontificate saw the beginning of the Hundred Years' War.