January 3, 106 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero was born. This day was set aside to honor the Roman Goddess of Peace, Pax, whose temple stood open in Rome during times of peace, but was closed during war. 1431 Joan of Arc was handed over to Bishop Pierre Cauchon. 1496 Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tested a flying machine. 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.