Sunday, July 31, 2011
July 31, 30 BC Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieved a minor victory over Octavian's forces, but most of his army subsequently deserted, leading to his suicide. 432 Saint Sixtus III was elected Roman Catholic pope. 781 The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781). 1009 Pope Sergius IV became the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII. 1201 Byzantine noble John Komnenos, nicknamed "the Fat" attempted to usurp the imperial throne from Alexios III Angelos in a short-lived coup in Constantinople. He was captured and executed when the coup was suppressed. 1423 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant – the French army was defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. 1588 The Spanish Armada was spotted off the coast of England.