Tuesday, July 19, 2011
July 19,711 – Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete – Muslim Umayyad Caliphate forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeated the Visigoths led by King Roderic.1318 Austria recognized the Three Forest Cantons, marking the beginning of modern Switzerland. 1333 Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill – The English won a decisive victory over the Scots. 1544 Italian War of 1542: the first Siege of Boulogne began. 1545 The Tudor warship Mary Rose capsized and sunk off Portsmouth with the loss of approximately 500 men. 1553 Lady Jane Grey was replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days of reign. 1588 Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada was sighted in the English Channel.