Monday, January 30, 2012
January 30, 1077 Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor Henry IV. 1487 Bell chimes were invented. 1522 Duke of Albany took captured French back to Scotland. 1648 Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and Osnabrück was signed, which ended the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain. 1649 King Charles I of England was beheaded. 1661 Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England was ritually executed two years after his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself deposed.