490 BC The Battle of Marathon took place between the forces of the Persian Empire and those of Athens, and was a decisive Greek victory.
422 Saint Celestine I was elected Roman Catholic pope.
506 The bishops of Visigothic Gaul met in the Council of Agde. The canons shed light on the moral conditions of the clergy and laity in southern France at the beginning of the transition from the Graeco-Roman social order to that of the new conquerors.
1167 Empress Matilda died. Daughter of King Henry I, widow of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, and mother of King Henry II, Matilda (also known as Maud) engaged in a civil war with Stephen of Blois over the crown of England.
1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy was assassinated by adherents of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France.
1509 An earthquake known as "The Lesser Judgment Day" hit Istanbul.
1547 The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, the last full scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulted in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI.