On October 1
331 BC, Alexander the
Great defeated Persian emperor Darius III in the Battle of Arbela in
Mesopotamia in one of the fifteen decisive battles of history.
959 Edgar, King
of the Mercians and Northumbrians, became King of the West Saxons and was then
considered to be King of all England.
965 John XIII became Pope.
1189 Gerard de
Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184, was killed in the
Siege of Acre.
1207 Henry III was born. King of England 1216-1264, his 56-year
reign was one of the longest in history. The building of the Westminster Abbey
was his most enduring moment.
1404 Boniface IX died. The second pope in Rome
during the Western Schism, Boniface was unable to end the breach and increased
hostility with his attempts to raise money in order to combat the antipopes.
1553 Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.