202 BC, the Romans under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal's army of Carthaginians and Numidians in the Battle of Sama in the Second Punic War.
439 Gaiseric, King of the Vandals, seized the Roman city of Carthage, and made it his capital.
1216 King John of England died at Newark-on-Trent and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1453 The French recapture of Bordeaux brought the Hundred Years' War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
1469 Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile creating the alliance that unified Spain.
1512 Martin Luther became a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1649 New Ross town, Co. Wexford, Ireland, surrendered to Oliver Cromwell.