1187 Sultan Saladin captured Jerusalem, which brought about the Third Crusade.
1263 The Battle of Largs was fought between Norwegians and Scots. It was the most important military engagement of the Scottish-Norwegian War. The Norwegian forces were led by King Håkon Håkonsson and the Scottish forces by King Alexander III. The result was inconclusive, but in the long term favored the Scots.
1264 Pope Urban IV died. His brief pontificate was largely occupied with his attempts to restore papal power in Italy.
1452 King Richard III of England was born.
1492 King Henry VII of England invaded France. This act of war was a bluff by Henry, as he had no intention of fighting over the winter. However, as France became more concerned with the Italian Wars, the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples.