38 BC Octavian married Livia Drusilla.
69 Etruscan Roman Emperor Otho committed suicide after a night of meditation in his tent. A companion of Nero, it is believed that he died to prevent civil war.
395 the Roman Empire was split into eastern and western parts upon the death of Emperor Theodosius I, whose will provided that his two sons would inherit the two parts.
1377 Pope Gregory XI moved the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon.
1501- Cesare Borgia returned in triumph to Rome from Romagna.
1648 England's Long Parliament passed the Vote of No Addresses, which broke off negotiations with King Charles I, setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War.