711 Islamic conquest of
Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad land at Gibraltar to began
their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).
1109 Hugh of Cluny died.
Hugh was the driving force in bringing the monastery of Cluny to preeminence in
1347 Catherine of Siena was born. Catherine, the patron saint
of Italy, played a significant role in returning the Papacy from Avignon to
Rome. She was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970.
1429 Joan of Arc led
French forces to victory over English at Orleans.