711 Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of Guadalete – Muslim
Umayyad Caliphate forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeated the Visigoths led by
1318 Austria recognized the Three Forest Cantons, marking the
beginning of modern Switzerland.
1333 Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of
Halidon Hill – The English won a decisive victory over the Scots.
Tudor warship Mary Rose capsized and sank off Portsmouth with the loss of
approximately 500 men.
1553 Lady Jane Grey was replaced by Mary I of England as
Queen of England after only nine days of reign.
1588 Anglo-Spanish War: Battle
of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada was sighted in the English Channel.