The Persian army defeated Leonidas and his Spartan army at Thermopylae, Persia.
48 BC – Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus (Greece) – Julius Caesar
decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey fled to Egypt where he was
later murdered. As a result Caesar had absolute control of Rome.
became Roman Emperor upon the death of Trajan.
378 Gothic War: Battle of
Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens was defeated by the
Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens was killed along with over half of his
681 Bulgaria was founded as a Khanate on the south bank of the Danube
after defeating the Byzantine armies of Emperor Constantine IV south of the
1173 Construction of the campanile of the cathedral of Pisa
(Leaning Tower of Pisa) begun; it would take two centuries to complete.
Edward I was crowned King of England.
1483 Opening of the Sistine Chapel in
Rome with the celebration of a Mass.
1655 Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell
divided England into 11 districts.