451 The Battle of
Châlons took place in North Eastern France. Flavius Aetius's victory over
Attila the Hun in a day of combat is considered to be the largest battle in the
1066 The Battle of Fulford: King Harald III of Norway (Harald
Hardrada) and Tostig Gowinson, his English allay, defeated Edwin of Mercia and
Morcar of Northumbria.
1187 Saladin began the Siege of Jerusalem. This act of
aggression provoked the Third Crusade.
1378 Cardinal Robert of Geneva, called
by some the Butcher of Cesena, was elected as Avignon Pope Clement VII,
beginning the Papal schism.
1633 Galileo Galilei was tried before the
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for teaching that the Earth orbits
the Sun and was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to
recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.