9 AD Arminius' alliance of six Germanic tribes
ambushed and annihilated three Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus in
the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
214 Aurelian, Roman Emperior was born.
Flavius Honorius, emperor of the East Roman Republic was born.
999 or 1000
Battle of Svolder was a naval battle fought in the western Baltic Sea between
King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance of his enemies; the background
for this battle was the unification of Norway into a single state, long-standing
Danish effort to gain control of the country, and the spread of Christianity in
Scandinavia. With the allied victory, Norway was partitioned and the spread of
Christianity was set back.
1087 William the Conqueror died in Rouen at age 59
after an accident while riding his horse.
1513 James IV of Scotland was
defeated and died in the Battle of Flodden Field, ending Scotland's involvement
in the War of the League of Cambrai.
1543 Mary Stuart, at nine months old, was
crowned Queen of Scots in the central Scottish town of Stirling.