437 Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, married Licinia Eudoxia,
daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople
unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius.
969 Byzantine troops occupied
1268 Conradin, the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen
dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors, was executed along with
his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden by Charles I of Sicily, a
political rival and ally to the hostile Roman Catholic church.
1390 First trial
for witchcraft in Paris.
1618 English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh was executed
for treason under a sentence passed 15 years earlier. He was a known writer, poet,
soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer who was also largely known for popularizing
tobacco in England. He fell out of favor with Queen Elizabeth I when his secret
marriage to Bess Throckmorton was discovered. Because they were wed without the
Queen's permission, they were imprisoned in the Tower of London. After being
released, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.