49 BC Julius Caesar was ordered to disband his
army. He refused and crossed the Rubicon three days later, invaded Italy, which
began a civil war.
1327 King Edward II of England was deposed.
University of Glasgow Founded at the request of King James II of Scotland. Pope
Nicholas V issued a bull of foundation for a studium generale. At first
underfunded and lacking a place to hold lectures, the University nonetheless
grew into a distinguished center of learning, its progress only briefly
interrupted by the troubles of the Reformation.
1558 French nobleman Francis,
Duke of Guise, captured Calais, the last English possession in mainland France.
1601 Robert, Earl of Essex led revolt in London against Queen Elizabeth.
Galileo Galilei observed three of the four largest moons of Jupiter for the
first time. He named them, and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons.