1077 Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor
1487 Bell chimes were invented.
1648 Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster and
Osnabrück was signed, which ended the conflict between the Netherlands and
1649 King Charles I of England was beheaded.
1661 Oliver Cromwell, Lord
Protector of the Commonwealth of England was ritually executed two years after
his death, on the anniversary of the execution of the monarch he himself