51 Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, was given the
title princeps iuventutis (head of the youth).
1152 Frederick Barbarossa was
elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1193 Saladin died.
1215 King John of England made
an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader to gain his support. 1
461 Battle at
Towton: Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians and Edward IV was recognized as king
1492 King James IV of Scotland concluded an alliance with France