1111 Henry V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
Constantinople fell to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending
the Byzantine Empire.
1250 The Seventh Crusade was defeated in Egypt; Louis IX
of France was captured.
1256 The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed
when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.
Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to
the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
1640 Charles I's eleven years of
personal rule end with the calling of the 'Short Parliament' at Westminster.