46 BC – Julius Caesar defeated
Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the battle of Thapsus.
Stilicho stymied the Visigoths under Alaric in the Battle of Pollentia.
Charles the Great affirmed Pippin's promise of Quiercy, protecting the States of
1199 England's King Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, died from an
infection following the removal of an arrow from his shoulder.
1320 The Scots
reaffirmed their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
II began his siege of Constantinople (Istanbul), which fell on May 29.
1483 Raphael was born.