1242 Twenty four
wagonloads of Talmudic (Hebrew instruction)books were burned in Paris.
1513 Italian Wars: Battle of Novara. Swiss
troops defeated the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to
abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza was restored.
1523 Gustav Vasa was
elected King of Sweden, marking the end of the Kalmar Union, which had united
the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands,
Shetland, and Orkney),and Sweden.
1683 The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England,
opened as the world's first university museum.