The Persian army defeated Leonidas and his Spartan army at Thermopylae, Persia.
48 BC – Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus (Greece) – Julius Caesar
decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey fled to Egypt where he was
later murdered. As a result Caesar had absolute control of Rome.
became Roman Emperor upon the death of Trajan.
378 Gothic War: Battle of
Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens was defeated by the
Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens was killed along with over half of his
1173 Construction of the campanile of the cathedral of Pisa
(Leaning Tower of Pisa) begun; it would take two centuries to complete.
Edward I was crowned King of England.
1483 Opening of the Sistine Chapel in
Rome with the celebration of a Mass.