1185 Byzantine emperor Andronicus I was
tortured and executed by the Greek nobility, led by Isaac Angelus, during a war
between the Byzantines and Norman invaders of the empire.
Crusade (directed against Christian heretics in southern France) Simon de
Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeated Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of
1362 Pope Innocent VI died. With a background in civil law, Innocent
took an interest in reform and in the possibility of ending the Avignon Papacy.