887 Asser began Instructing King Alfred. The Welsh monk who taught and counseled the King, became his friend and biographer, and began teaching him Latin on St. Martin's Day. Alfred went on to translate the work of Boethius into English.
1050 AD Henry IV was born. He was King of Germany 1056-1106, who tried to depose Pope Gregory VII, and had to stand barefoot in the snow for three days before Gregory would pardon him, although Henry got his revenge later.
1215 The Fourth Lateran Council met and defined the doctrine of transubstantiation, the process by which bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
1417 Martin V Elected Pope. Elected unanimously during the Council of Constance, Martin was faced with the enormous task of restoring the Western church, the Papal States, and the papacy itself.
1572 Tycho's Nova. Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed the Nova Cassiopeiae and, although other observers claimed to have spotted it earlier, his precise measurements revealed it was a distant phenomenon and that changes could occur among stars.