1119 Pope Gelasius II died. The brief reign
of Gelasius II was plagued by the lingering investiture controversy and the
aggressive actions of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry took possession of
Rome and twice drove the pope from the city, installing in his place the
antipope Gregory VIII.
1327 Edward III was crowned By laying claim
to the French throne, he started the Hundred Years' War. He also created Britain's highest knightly
order, the Order of the Garter because of his fondness for chivalry.
William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet was performed for the first time on
1613 Galileo observed Neptune but failed to understand the
significance of his find.