Julius Caesar's calendar reform: 365 days in 12 months with leap years every
four years was introduced.
43 BC Cicero delivered his Fifth Philippic (fifth of
a series of speeches condemning Mark Antony) in the Roman Senate.
Octavian became the first emperor of Rome and took the name Caesar Augustus.
404 Last gladiator competition in Rome.
1431 Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia)