864 The Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald
ordered defensive measures against the Vikings.
1261 The city of Constantinople was recaptured by Nicaean
forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos, re-establishing the
1603 James VI of
Scotland was crowned as king of England (James I of England), uniting the
Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into personal union. Political union
would occur in 1707.