472 after being besieged in Rome by his own generals, Western
Roman Emperor Anthemius was captured in the Old St. Peter's Basilica and put to
911 The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple of
France and Rollo leader of the Vikings was signed. The treaty protected Charles
kingdom from further invasion and created the duchy of Normandy; the Vikings
became known as Normans. Also Rollo agreed to be baptized and to marry the
illegitimate daughter of Charles, thus becoming the king's vassal.
1533 Pope Clement
VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.