986 A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of
Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Samuel and Aron. The
Byzantine emperor Basil II narrowly escaped. The Battle of the Gates of Trajan
only postponed the fall of Bulgaria, which occurred in 1018.
1498 - Cardinal
Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei, renounced
his vows and office so that he might marry a French princess.
Dudley was executed for treason under Henry VIII. While waiting for his
execution he wrote The Tree of Commonwealth, a treatise in support of absolute
monarchy; Dudley hoped to gain the favor of Henry VIII, but there is no
evidence that Henry ever saw the document.