The Persian army defeated Leonidas and his Spartan army at Thermopylae, Persia.
48 BC – Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus (Greece) – Julius Caesar
decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey fled to Egypt where he was
later murdered. As a result Caesar had absolute control of Rome.
378 Gothic War: Battle of
Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens was defeated by the
Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens was killed along with over half of his