655 Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of
Northumbria. Although the battle was said to be the most important between the
early northern and southern divisions of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, few
details are available. Significantly, the battle marked the effective demise of
1397 Pope Nicholas V was born. Known as the Humanist
Pope, he had a significant role in the founding of the Vatican Library.
England's Thomas Wolsey was invested as a Cardinal.